Classification of Gymnosperms
The Chamberlain System – 1934
Brief history of the classification of Gymnosperms:
There are many systems for the classification of Gymnosperms in the literature. Robert Brown (1827) for the first time recognized Gymnosperms as a separate group of plants. Bentham and Hooker (1883) placed Gymnosperms between Dicots and Monocots in their classification (General Plantarum). Van Tieghman (1898) gave the status of Major Division to the Gymnosperms. Tieghman also divided the whole Spermatophyta (seed plants) into two divisions namely Gymnosperms (Astigmatae) and Angiosperms (Stigmatae). Coulter and Chamberlain in 1912 divided the division Gymnosperms directly into seven orders namely (1) Cycadofilicales, (2) Bennettitales, (3) Cycadales, (4) Cordaitales, (5) Ginkoales, (6) Coniferales and (7) Gnetales.
Classification of Gymnosperms by Chamberlain (1934)
Ø Chamberlain (1934) divided the Gymnosperms into TWO classes and each class into orders.
Ø Gymnosperms were divided into TWO classes:
Class I : Cycadophyta
Ø Class Cycadophyta includes both fossil and living forms.
Ø The stem is unbranched and stumpy.
Ø Leaves are large and pinnately compound.