effect of pH on enzymatic activity

Factors Affecting Enzymatic Activity (Biochemistry Lecture Notes)


rate limiting factors of enzyme

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Factors Affecting Enzymatic Activity

In the previous post, we have discussed the Properties of Enzymes. In the present post, we will see what all are the factors that affect the catalytic activity of an enzyme in the living system.

Factors Affecting Enzymatic Activity

Ø  The catalytic activities of enzymes are affected by multiple factors. They can be summarized as:

effect of pH on enzymatic activity(1).   Temperature

(2).   Water

(3).   Hydrogen ion Concentration (pH)

(4).   Concentration of Substrate

(5).   Concentration of Enzyme

(6).   Inhibitors

(7).   Accumulation of End-products

(8).   Effect of activators

(9).   Effect of light and radiation

(1). Temperature

Ø  The enzymatic activity will be optimum at normal temperature.

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catalytic properties of enzymes

Properties of Enzymes (Biochemistry Lecture Notes)


enzyme properteis

Properties of Enzymes
(Catalytic Property, Specificity, Reversibility and Sensitivity to Heat and pH)

Enzymes are biological catalysis. They are specialized proteins (except ribozymes) capable of catalyzing specific reactions in the cells. In the previous post, we have discussed the Structure and Functions of Enzymes. In the present post, we will discuss the Properties of Enzymes.

What are the Properties of Enzymes?

@. The properties of an enzyme can be summarized as:

(1). Catalytic Property

(2). Specificity

(3). Reversibility

(4). Sensitiveness to Heat and Temperature

(5). Specific to Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH)

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biological chemistry

Introduction to Enzymes: Structure and Characteristics-Short Lecture Notes


Enzymes short notes

Enzymes: Structure and Characteristics
(Introduction to Enzyme Structure & Functions)

What are Enzymes?

There are thousands of chemical reactions in a living system. The chemical reactions in the cell are catalyzed by the biological catalysts called enzymes. Almost all enzymes are highly specialized proteins. (Exception: Ribozymes –Ribozymes are RNA with catalytic activity). The current post we will discuss the Characteristics of Enzymes. We will also discuss the features of a Catalyst and the concept of Activation Energy of a reaction.

What are catalysts?

Ø  The catalyst is substances that accelerate the rate of a chemical reaction.

Ø  The catalyst is not consumed or transformed by the reaction.

Ø  It will not change the equilibrium constant of the reaction.

Ø  Catalysts only change the rate to approach equilibrium constant.

Ø  Catalysts are not required in stoichiometric quantities.

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biological chemistry

Structure of Proteins (Biochemistry Lecture Notes)


protein structure

Protein Structure
(Primary, Secondary, Tertiary & Quaternary Structure of Proteins)

Learning objectives: Protein Structure: Primary Structure, Secondary Structure (Alpha Helix, Beta Plates, Beta Turns), Tertiary Structure, Quaternary Structure, Bonds Stabilizing different Protein Structures.

Protein Structure

Ø  Proteins are the polymers of amino acids. Individual amino acids (residues) are joined by peptide bonds to form the linear polypeptide chain. This linear polypeptide chain is folded into specific structural conformations or simply ‘structure’.  A protein can have up to four levels of structural conformations. Previously we have discussed but the ‘Bonds involved in Protein Structure”. In the present post, we will discuss different types of protein structures.

Ø  A protein can have Four levels of structural organization:

Ø  They are designated as:

(1). Primary Structure

(2). Secondary Structure

(3). Tertiary Structure

(4). Quaternary Structure

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Botany lecture notes

Economic Importance of Gymnosperms (Short Notes)


economic importance of gymnosperms

Economic Importance of Gymnosperms

The Gymnosperms are with high economic importance to mankind. For easy understanding, the economic importance of Gymnosperms can be categorized in the following heads:

(1).      Food Value

(2).      Medicinal Value

(3).      Timber Value

(4).      Source of Oil

(5).      Industrial Value

(6).      Ornamental Value

(7).      Other Uses

gymnosperms economic aspects

(1). Food Value

Ø  Cycads are a good source of Starch.

Ø  ‘Sago’ is a starch obtained from the pith and cortex of the stem of Cycas revolute and Cycas rumphi.

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