biological chemistry

Introduction to Enzymes: Structure and Characteristics-Short Lecture Notes

Enzymes short notes

Enzymes: Structure and Characteristics
(Introduction to Enzyme Structure & Functions)

What are Enzymes?

There are thousands of chemical reactions in a living system. The chemical reactions in the cell are catalyzed by the biological catalysts called enzymes. Almost all enzymes are highly specialized proteins. (Exception: Ribozymes –Ribozymes are RNA with catalytic activity). The current post we will discuss the Characteristics of Enzymes. We will also discuss the features of a Catalyst and the concept of Activation Energy of a reaction.

What are catalysts?

Ø  The catalyst is substances that accelerate the rate of a chemical reaction.

Ø  The catalyst is not consumed or transformed by the reaction.

Ø  It will not change the equilibrium constant of the reaction.

Ø  Catalysts only change the rate to approach equilibrium constant.

Ø  Catalysts are not required in stoichiometric quantities.

Continue reading

biological chemistry

Structure of Proteins (Biochemistry Lecture Notes)

protein structure

Protein Structure
(Primary, Secondary, Tertiary & Quaternary Structure of Proteins)

Learning objectives: Protein Structure: Primary Structure, Secondary Structure (Alpha Helix, Beta Plates, Beta Turns), Tertiary Structure, Quaternary Structure, Bonds Stabilizing different Protein Structures.

Protein Structure

Ø  Proteins are the polymers of amino acids. Individual amino acids (residues) are joined by peptide bonds to form the linear polypeptide chain. This linear polypeptide chain is folded into specific structural conformations or simply ‘structure’.  A protein can have up to four levels of structural conformations. Previously we have discussed but the ‘Bonds involved in Protein Structure”. In the present post, we will discuss different types of protein structures.

Ø  A protein can have Four levels of structural organization:

Ø  They are designated as:

(1). Primary Structure

(2). Secondary Structure

(3). Tertiary Structure

(4). Quaternary Structure

Continue reading

Botany lecture notes

Economic Importance of Gymnosperms (Short Notes)

economic importance of gymnosperms

Economic Importance of Gymnosperms

The Gymnosperms are with high economic importance to mankind. For easy understanding, the economic importance of Gymnosperms can be categorized in the following heads:

(1).      Food Value

(2).      Medicinal Value

(3).      Timber Value

(4).      Source of Oil

(5).      Industrial Value

(6).      Ornamental Value

(7).      Other Uses

gymnosperms economic aspects

(1). Food Value

Ø  Cycads are a good source of Starch.

Ø  ‘Sago’ is a starch obtained from the pith and cortex of the stem of Cycas revolute and Cycas rumphi.

Continue reading

Botany lecture notes

Anomalous Secondary Thickening in Dracaena Stem: Lecture Notes and Diagram

anomalous secondary thickening in monocots

Anomalous Secondary Thickening in Dracaena
Anomalous Secondary Thickening in Monocots

Before going to the secondary thickening in Dracaena, first see what anomalous secondary thickening is and how the process of anomalous secondary thickening happens in plants.

What is Anomalous Secondary Thickening?

Ø  In many plants, the pattern of the secondary thickening shows deviation from the normal type.

Ø  The term “Anomalous Secondary Growth” is given for this deviation or variation.

Ø  The anomalous secondary growth is more common in tropical plants.

Ø  Anomalous secondary thickening is NOT an anomaly or disease in plants; rather it is an adaptation to suit the habit and habitat of the plant.

Continue reading

characteristics of glossopteridales

Glossopteridales-General Characteristics (Glossopteris Short Notes)

What is Glossopteris

Glossopteridales General Characteristics
Characteristics of Glossopteridales: Fossil Gymnosperm


Ø  Glossopteridales included an extinct group of seed plants (Gymnosperms).

Ø  They were originated during the Permian period on the Gondwana Continent.

Ø  They became the dominant vegetation in the Permian period.

characteristics of glossopteridales

Ø  They extinct completely by the end of the Triassic period.

Ø  The order name derived from the genus Glossopteris

Ø  Glossopteris is the best-known member of Glossopteridales

Continue reading