Difference between Covalent Bond and Ionic Bond: Comparison Table


Compare Covalent and Ionic Bonds

Covalent Bonds vs Ionic Bonds
(Similarities and Differences between Covalent Bonds and Ionic Bonds)

The chemical bonds are stable attractions between atoms, ions or molecules. The formation of chemical bond allows the formation of molecules or compounds. Chemical bonds are classified into different categories based on their formation and strength. Important types of chemical bonds recognized are Covalent bonds, Ionic bonds, Metallic bonds, Dipole-dipole interactions, London dispersion forces and Hydrogen bonds. The present post discuss about the Similarities and Differences between the Covalent bond and Ionic bond with a Comparison Table.

Covalent bond: A chemical bond formed by the sharing of electron pairs.

Ionic bond: A chemical bond formed by the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.

Similarities between Covalent Bond and Ionic Bond

Ø  Both covalent and ionic bonds are strong bonds.

Ø  Both are primary bonds.

Ø  Both bonds result in the formation of complex structures.

Ø  The formation of both covalent and ionic bonds results in the formation of more stable compounds than the original.

Ø  Formation of covalent and ionic bonds is exothermic.

Ø  Compounds formed by both covalent and ionic bonds will have net neutral charge.

Ø  Compounds with both covalent and ionic bonds are not malleable.

Difference between Covalent Bond and Ionic Bond

 Covalent BondIonic Bond
FormationFormed by the sharing of electron pair(s) between two atomsFormed by the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
ImageCovalent bond hydrogenNaF
ExamplesWater, Oxygen molecule, Diamond, SilicaSodium chloride, LiF, CaF2
Bond lengthBond length is specific for a particular bondBond length is highly variable
Bond angleConstant for a particular bondVary considerably
The bondConsists of shared electrons between the atomsConsists of electrostatic forces between anion and cation
DirectionCovalent bond is directionalIonic bond is non-directional.
ShapeHave definite shapeDo not have definite shape
Electron OrbitalsElectron orbitals in covalent bond overlapsElectron orbitals in ionic bonds are separate
ReactionChemical reactions by a covalent bond will be molecularChemical reactions by an ionic bond will be ionic
Reaction speedMolecular reactions are comparatively slowIonic reactions are comparatively instantaneous.
Solubility in waterCompounds are insoluble in water and other polar solventsCompounds are soluble in water and other polar solvents
Solubility in nonpolar solventsReadily solubleInsoluble
ConductivityCovalent bonds are poor conductorsBad conductors in solid state but they are good conductors in molten state or in solution
Physical stateCompounds are usually solid, liquid or gasesCompounds are usually ionizable minerals.
NatureCompounds are usually soft and waxyCompounds will be hard and brittle
Boiling pointLow boiling point.High boiling point
Melting pointLow melting pointHigh melting point
StereoisomerismCovalent bonds can exhibit stereoisomerismIonic bonds do not exhibit space isomerism

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