Difference between Covalent Bond and Ionic Bond: Comparison Table
Covalent Bonds vs Ionic Bonds (Similarities and Differences between Covalent Bonds and Ionic Bonds)
The chemical bonds are stable attractions between atoms, ions or molecules. The formation of chemical bond allows the formation of molecules or compounds. Chemical bonds are classified into different categories based on their formation and strength. Important types of chemical bonds recognized are Covalent bonds, Ionic bonds, Metallic bonds, Dipole-dipole interactions, London dispersion forces and Hydrogen bonds. The present post discuss about the Similarities and Differences between the Covalent bond and Ionic bond with a Comparison Table.
Covalent bond: A chemical bond formed by the sharing of electron pairs.
Ionic bond: A chemical bond formed by the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Similarities between Covalent Bond and Ionic Bond
Ø Both covalent and ionic bonds are strong bonds.
Ø Both are primary bonds.
Ø Both bonds result in the formation of complex structures.
Ø The formation of both covalent and ionic bonds results in the formation of more stable compounds than the original.
Ø Formation of covalent and ionic bonds is exothermic.
Ø Compounds formed by both covalent and ionic bonds will have net neutral charge.
Ø Compounds with both covalent and ionic bonds are not malleable.
Difference between Covalent Bond and Ionic Bond
Formed by the sharing of electron pair(s) between two atoms
Formed by the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
Water, Oxygen molecule, Diamond, Silica
Sodium chloride, LiF, CaF2
Bond length is specific for a particular bond
Bond length is highly variable
Constant for a particular bond
Consists of shared electrons between the atoms
Consists of electrostatic forces between anion and cation
Covalent bond is directional
Ionic bond is non-directional.
Have definite shape
Do not have definite shape
Electron orbitals in covalent bond overlaps
Electron orbitals in ionic bonds are separate
Chemical reactions by a covalent bond will be molecular
Chemical reactions by an ionic bond will be ionic
Molecular reactions are comparatively slow
Ionic reactions are comparatively instantaneous.
Solubility in water
Compounds are insoluble in water and other polar solvents
Compounds are soluble in water and other polar solvents
Solubility in nonpolar solvents
Covalent bonds are poor conductors
Bad conductors in solid state but they are good conductors in molten state or in solution
Compounds are usually solid, liquid or gases
Compounds are usually ionizable minerals.
Compounds are usually soft and waxy
Compounds will be hard and brittle
Low boiling point.
High boiling point
Low melting point
High melting point
Covalent bonds can exhibit stereoisomerism
Ionic bonds do not exhibit space isomerism
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