Philadelphia Chromosome (PH)
(Philadelphia Translocation, PH and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia – CML)
Translocation is a Structural Aberration of Chromosome
Translocation is a type of structural aberration of the chromosome where a segment of chromosome gets translocated to another chromosome. There may be two types of translocation based on the nature of the exchange. They are:
(1). Homologous Translocation
(2). Heterologous Translocation
In homologous translocation, the exchange of chromosomal segments occurs between the homologous chromosomes. In heterologous translocation, the chromosomal segments are exchanged between non-homologous chromosomes. The heterologous translocation in most of the cases will be a reciprocal translocation (exchange of segments between chromosomes).
Translocation causes ‘Position Effect’
The translocation of chromosomes leads to a phenomenon in molecular genetics called the ‘Position Effect’. The position effect is the change in the expression pattern of a gene due to its current position in the chromosome. For example, a normally active gene may be converted to an inactive gene when it is translocated into a new position or vice versa.
Extrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis
(The Receptor-Mediated Programmed Cell Death Pathway)
In the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, the death-inducing signal for the programmed cell death is triggered by an external stimulus. For receiving such an external death-inducing signal, the cell possesses plasma membrane receptors specific to each stimulus and thus the extrinsic signalling of apoptosis is also known as the Receptor Mediated programmed cell death pathway.
The external stimuli for the apoptosis in most of the cases will be a cytokine. The most studied cytokine to induce extrinsic pathway of apoptosis is an extracellular messenger protein called Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF). TNF is so named because it was first discovered as a protein factor which induces cell death in cancerous cells. The TNF cytokine is produced by the cells of the immune system in response towards the adverse conditions. The adverse conditions that can provoke the immune cells to produce TNF are:
Ø Exposure to radiation
Ø Introduction of viral toxins
Ø Exposure to elevated temperature
Ø Exposure to other toxic substances
The detailed signaling mechanism of TNF-mediated extrinsic pathway of apoptosis is summarized below:
Ø TNF first binds to its receptor called TNFR1 (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1) present on the plasma membrane.
Ø TNFR1 is a member of death receptor family proteins that turn on the apoptotic cell death process in eukaryotic cells.
Ø TNFR1 is a trans-membrane receptor with an external ligand binding domain and a cytosolic domain.
Apoptosis: The Programmed Cell Death
What is Apoptosis? Why apoptosis is known as the ‘Programmed Cell Death’?
The total number of cells in an organ or organism is fundamentally fixed to a specific range in all multicellular organisms. In every multi-cellular organism, the cell number is effectively controlled by two strategies- (a) by regulating cell Division and (b) by regulating cell Death. If cells are no longer needed, they commit suicide (self-destruction) by activating an intracellular death signaling programme. Thus, this death process is known as ‘Programmed Cell Death’. This programmed cell death pathway is called Apoptosis.
The term apoptosis in Greek literally mean ‘falling off’. Just like the old leaves ‘falloff’ from the trees without affecting the life of the plant, the apoptotic cell death will not interfere with the functioning of the organ and organism. The most striking feature of apoptosis is that if a cell undergoes the programmed cell death, the neighboring cells are not at all damaged. Apoptotic death of a cell and its subsequent phagocytosis by a neighboring cell or by a macrophage allow the organic components of the death cell to be effectively recycled.
Learn more: Difference between Apoptosis and Necrosis
The apoptosis is better known as the ‘Programmed Cell Death’. It is a natural well-orchestrated, well sequenced and timely executed chain of events leads to the death of a cell.
What are the characteristics of Apoptotic Cell Death?
An apoptotic cell death is characterized by:
Ø Shrinkage of the cell
Ø Shrinkage of the nucleus
Ø Loss of adhesion to the neighboring cells