biological chemistry

Carbohydrates Simple Lecture Notes: Definition, Types, Classification, Examples and Functions


Simple notes on carbohydrates

CARBOHYDRATES
(Biochemistry of Carbohydrates: Introduction, Properties, Classification and Biological Significance)

Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones

significance of carbohydratesCarbohydrates are the most abundant bio-macro-molecules on the earth. They are commonly known as sugars because most of them have a sweet taste. Chemically all carbohydrates are polyhydroxy (contain many hydroxyl, – OH, groups) aldehydes or ketones. All carbohydrates are hydrates of carbon and they contain C, H and O. The ratio of hydrogen and oxygen in the majority of carbohydrates will be in 2:1 as in water. Some carbohydrates also contain nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur. Majority of carbohydrates, not all, have the empirical formula (CH2O)n. In biochemistry, carbohydrates are denoted as saccharides. The term saccharide is derived from a Greek word ‘sakkharon’ meaning sugar.

Green plants fix the energy of sunlight by photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, the light energy is converted into the chemical energy and it is stored in some carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch etc. The oxidative breakdown of these carbohydrates by respiration release the energy stored in them and this energy is utilized for the various metabolic activities of the cells.

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biological chemistry

Difference between Collagen and Keratin – Comparison Table


Collagen vs Keratin

Collagen vs Keratin
(Similarities and Differences between Collagen and Keratin)

Collagen and Keratin are the main structural proteins. They are two main families of fibrous proteins and are abundantly present in the extracellular matrix and various connective tissues in animals. 

Collagen: A linear structural fibrous protein abundantly found in the connective tissue and extracellular space of the cells. They are also found in tendons, ligaments, cornea, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, intervertebral discs and the dentine in teeth.

Keratin: A structural protein abundantly present in epithelial cells. They protect the epithelial cells from damage or stress. Keratin is also present in appendages such as feathers, hairs and nail, horn, claws and hooves of animals. Keratin is the structural material that makes the human skin.

The present post discusses the similarities and Differences between Collagen and Keratin with a Comparison Table.

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