Difference between Active Immunity and Passive Immunity – Comparison Table

Compare active and passive immunity

Active Immunity vs Passive Immunity
(Similarities and Differences between Active and Passive Immunity)

The acquired immunity is the immunity acquired by an organism during its life. The acquired immunity against a particular microbe may be induced by the host’s response to the microbe or by the transfer of antibodies or lymphocytes specific for the microbes. Based on the above criteria, the acquired immunity is categorized into two types – (1) Active Immunity and (2) Passive Immunity.

Active Immunity: The active immunity is the direct response of your body against the pathogens. It is induced by the exposure to a foreign antigen such as the antigen of microbes. It is an adaptive response of the individual after contact with specific pathogen or antigen.

what is active immunity

Passive Immunity: The passive immunity is the immunity conferred to an individual by the transfer of serum or lymphocytes from a specifically immunized individual. Passive immunity is a useful method for conferring resistance without waiting for the development of the active immune response.

what is passive immunity

The present post discusses the Similarities and Differences between the Active and Passive Immune Systems with a Comparison Table.

Similarities between Active Immunity and Passive Immunity

Ø  Both active and passive immunity are acquired immunities.

Ø  Both can be natural and artificial.

Ø  Both types of immunity involve lymphocytes.

Ø  The antimicrobial components in both the systems are antibodies.

Ø  Both are induced by the antigens.

Ø  Both systems are specific.

Difference between Active and Passive Immunity

Sl. No.Active ImmunityPassive Immunity
1Produced actively by the immune system of the host.Produced passively by the immune system of the host.
2Antibody production is induced by the infection or by immunogensAntibodies are not produced, but directly transferred
3Active immunity involves both cell mediated and humoral immunity.Passive immunity is due to the presence of ready-made antibodies.
4Natural active immunity is by clinical infectionNatural passive immunity is by the transfer of antibodies through placenta
5Artificial active immunity is induced by vaccinationArtificial passive immunity is induced by injection of antibodies
6A lag-period is present Lag period is absent
7Active immunity is effective only after the lag-periodPassive immunity is immediately mediated (since lag-period is absent)
8Active immunity is durable.Passive immunity is only transient
9Active immunity offers effective protection against microbes.Passive immunity is less efficient in offering complete protection
10Immunological memory is presentImmunological memory
11In active immunity, the subsequent doses with the antigen causes booster effectIn passive immunity, the subsequent dozes is less effective due to the immune elimination
12Negative phase may occurs in active immunityNegative phase is absent
13Active immunity is not applicable to immune deficient individualsPassive immunity is applicable to immune deficient individuals

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