Active Immunity vs Passive Immunity
(Similarities and Differences between Active and Passive Immunity)
The acquired immunity is the immunity acquired by an organism during its life. The acquired immunity against a particular microbe may be induced by the host’s response to the microbe or by the transfer of antibodies or lymphocytes specific for the microbes. Based on the above criteria, the acquired immunity is categorized into two types – (1) Active Immunity and (2) Passive Immunity.
Active Immunity: The active immunity is the direct response of your body against the pathogens. It is induced by the exposure to a foreign antigen such as the antigen of microbes. It is an adaptive response of the individual after contact with specific pathogen or antigen.
Passive Immunity: The passive immunity is the immunity conferred to an individual by the transfer of serum or lymphocytes from a specifically immunized individual. Passive immunity is a useful method for conferring resistance without waiting for the development of the active immune response.
The present post discusses the Similarities and Differences between the Active and Passive Immune Systems with a Comparison Table.
Similarities between Active Immunity and Passive Immunity
Ø Both active and passive immunity are acquired immunities.
Ø Both can be natural and artificial.
Ø Both types of immunity involve lymphocytes.
Ø The antimicrobial components in both the systems are antibodies.
Ø Both are induced by the antigens.
Ø Both systems are specific.
Difference between Active and Passive Immunity
|Sl. No.||Active Immunity||Passive Immunity|
|1||Produced actively by the immune system of the host.||Produced passively by the immune system of the host.|
|2||Antibody production is induced by the infection or by immunogens||Antibodies are not produced, but directly transferred|
|3||Active immunity involves both cell mediated and humoral immunity.||Passive immunity is due to the presence of ready-made antibodies.|
|4||Natural active immunity is by clinical infection||Natural passive immunity is by the transfer of antibodies through placenta|
|5||Artificial active immunity is induced by vaccination||Artificial passive immunity is induced by injection of antibodies|
|6||A lag-period is present||Lag period is absent|
|7||Active immunity is effective only after the lag-period||Passive immunity is immediately mediated (since lag-period is absent)|
|8||Active immunity is durable.||Passive immunity is only transient|
|9||Active immunity offers effective protection against microbes.||Passive immunity is less efficient in offering complete protection|
|10||Immunological memory is present||Immunological memory|
|11||In active immunity, the subsequent doses with the antigen causes booster effect||In passive immunity, the subsequent dozes is less effective due to the immune elimination|
|12||Negative phase may occurs in active immunity||Negative phase is absent|
|13||Active immunity is not applicable to immune deficient individuals||Passive immunity is applicable to immune deficient individuals|
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