Botany lecture notes

Difference between Flower and Vegetative Shoot (Comparison Table )

Flower vs Vegetative Shoot

Flower vs Vegetative Branch
(Difference between Flower and Reproductive Shoot)

The flower is the reproductive structure formed in the plant group Angiosperms or Magnoliophyta, commonly called as the ‘Flowering Plants’. The flower is a ‘modified branch’ or axis developed from a ‘determinate’ apical meristem.

The term ‘determinate’ indicates the absence of further growth of the apical meristem after the production of flowers. Even though the flower is a modified shoot, the morphological and anatomical features of a flower and a vegetative branch show many differences.

The present post discusses the Difference between a Flower and a Vegetative Branch with a Comparison Table.

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Botany lecture notes

Difference between Self Pollination and Cross Pollination – Comparison Table

Compare self pollination and Cross pollination

Self-Pollination vs Cross Pollination
(Similarities and Differences between Self Pollination and Cross Pollination)

Pollination is a process in sexual reproducing plants by which the pollen grains from the anther is transferred to the stigma of the gynoecium and thereby enable fertilization. Pollination is an essential step for sexual reproduction in seed plants (Spermatophytes – Gymnosperms and Angiosperms) to produce the seeds. 

In plants (typically in Angiosperms), the pollination and the completion of sexual reproduction can be achieved by two methods – Self-pollination and Cross-pollination.


Pollen from the anther of a flower is deposited on the stigma of the same flower or a different flower of the same plant.


Pollen from the anther of a flower is deposited on the stigma of a flower borne on another plant of the same species.

Nature favor cross-pollination since, it enables a better chance for creating variability in the progenies. Moreover, in order to prevent self-pollination, plants have evolved several structural and genetic methods such as the production of unisexual flowers, the positioning of male and female parts to avoid self-pollination, self-incompatibility and maturation of male and female parts in different types (protandry and protogyny).

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Botany lecture notes

Difference between Asexual and Sexual Reproduction – Comparison Table

sexual vs asexual reproduction

Asexual Reproduction vs Sexual Reproduction
(Similarities between Sexual and Asexual Reproduction)

Reproduction is a biological process by which new individuals (progenies) are formed from their parents. There are two types of reproductions in organisms: sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction.

asexual reproduction in yeastAsexual reproduction:

A method of reproduction, usually present in lower animals and plants where progenies are produced from a single parent without the formation of gametes and fertilization. Example: division of bacteria by binary fission, budding of Hydra and yeasts, and vegetative reproduction in plants.

Sexual reproduction:

A method of reproduction where the progenies are produced by two parents of separate sexes. These parents produce morphologically and sexually different gametes. The union of gametes results in the formation of zygote. The zygote develops into new progeny.

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Botany lecture notes

Difference between Intercropping and Mixed Cropping: Comparison Table

Intercropping vs Mixed Farming

Mixed Cropping vs Intercropping
(Difference between Mixed Cropping and Intercropping)

Mixed cropping and Intercropping are two methods of diversified farming techniques where more than one types of crops are grown in the same unit area. In mixed cropping or mixed farming, two independent crops are mixed together and grown in an area, whereas the intercropping is a multiple cropping techniques where two or more crops are grown in proximity.  

Mixed cropping and intercropping are essentially two separate farming techniques with specific goals. The present post discusses the differences between Mixed cropping and Intercropping with a comparison table.

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Botany lecture notes

Gamma Gardens for Mutation Breeding and Crop Improvement (Advantages and Disadvantages)

atomic garden

Satellite Map of a Gamma Garden at Institute of Radiation Breeding, Hitachiohmiya, Japan

Gamma Gardens (Atomic Gardens)

What are Gamma Gardens or Atomic Gardens?

Gamma garden or Atomic garden is a concept popularized after the Word War 2 for the peaceful use of atomic energy (atoms for peace) for the crop improvement.

Gamma gardens or atomic gardens are a type of induced mutation breeding where radioactive sources particularly gamma rays from cobalt -60 or Caesium-137 are used to induce desirable mutations in crop plants. 

Salient features of Gamma Garden

Ø  Gamma gardens are “area subjected to gamma irradiation of crop plants”.

Ø  They are giant structures, enclosed by thick high wall to protect the plants and animals outside.

Ø  The purpose of a gamma garden is to irradiate the whole plants during different stages of development and of varying duration.

Ø  The source of radiation used is Cobalt-60.

Ø  Rarely Caesium-137 is also used as the source of radiation.

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