Prokaryotic DNA vs Eukaryotic DNA
(Similarities and Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA)
DNA is the genetic material in both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. The chemical composition and structural features of DNA in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes are similar. The major differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA were those related to its genetic content and organization. The present post describes the similarities and differences between the DNA of prokaryotes and eukaryotes with a comparison table.
Similarities between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA
Ø The DNA is double stranded and helical in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Ø The DNA composed of purine (A and G) and pyrimidines (T and C) in both groups.
Ø Both groups follow the Chargaff’s rule.
Ø The strands are antiparallel in both groups.
Ø The three dimensional organizations of DNA such as helix pitch, number of base pairs per turn, distance between two bases, distance between two strands, formation of major groves and minor groves etc. are similar in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Ø The replication of DNA is more or less similar in both groups.
Ø In both groups extra chromosomal genetic materials are present (plasmids in prokaryotes and mtDNA and cpDNA in eukaryoes).