biological chemistry

Chemical Bonds Involved in Protein Structure and Conformation


bonds stabilizing protein structure

Bonds involved in Protein Structure
(Bonds Stabilizing the Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure of Proteins)

Proteins are the polymers of amino acids. Amino acids are joined together by a special type of covalent bond (peptide bond) to form linear structures called polypeptides. The polypeptides are then folded into specific structures to form the functional conformation of the protein. The folding of proteins into specific shapes and conformations are assisted and stabilized by many types of bonds in them. Some of these bonds are strong bonds whereas others are weak interactions. Important types of bonds involved in protein structure and conformation are Peptide bonds, Ionic bonds, Disulfide bonds, Hydrogen bonds and Hydrophobic Interactions. The current post describes the importance of each of these bonds and their role in the functional conformation of the protein.

What are the different types of bonds present in a protein?

Ø  Typically, proteins possess the following FIVE types of bonds.

(1).    Peptide bond

(2).   Ionic bond

(3).   Disulfide bond

(4).   Hydrogen bond

(5).   Hydrophobic Interactions

(1). Peptide Bond

Ø  Peptide bond definition: a covalent bond formed between the carboxylic group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid.

Ø  Peptide bond is a strong covalent bond with high bond dissociation energy.

Ø  It is formed by the joining of two amino acid residues during protein synthesis.

Ø  The carboxylic group (- COOH) of one amino acid combine with the amino group (-NH2) of another amino acid to form the peptide bond.

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biological chemistry

Classification of Proteins Based on Structure and Function

protein classification

Classification of Proteins

Proteins are important macromolecules of the cells, formed by the polymerization of amino acids according to the sequence of genetic code in the mRNA. Proteins are the mode of expression of the genetic information. They perform a variety of duties in the cells such as they act as the structural components of cells, enzymes, hormones, pigments, storage proteins and some toxins in the cells. The proteins are classified into many categories based on different criterions.

Criterion for the classification of proteins:

Ø  Proteins are classified based on the following THREE criterions:

                             (I).     Classification based on STRUCTURE of Protein

                            (II).    Classification based on COMPOSITION of Protein

                           (III).    Classification based on FUNCTIONS of Proteins

(I). Classification of Proteins based on the Structure of Proteins

Ø  Based on the structure, proteins are classified into 3 groups.

(A).   Fibrous Proteins

(B).   Globular Proteins

(C).   Intermediate Proteins

(A). Fibrous Proteins

Ø  They are linear (long fibrous) in shape.

Ø  Secondary structure is the most important functional structure of fibrous proteins.

Ø  Usually, these proteins do not have tertiary structures.

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biological chemistry

Physical and Chemical Properties of Water and its Biological Significance


biological significance of water

Physical and Chemical Properties of Water and its Biological Significance

Water is the most abundant substance in the living system. Water makes up about 70% or more of the weight of almost all organisms. The life has originated in remote past in the aqueous environment. The properties (both physical and chemical) of water enabled it as the ‘solvent of life’. The water possesses some unusual physical and chemical properties. These ‘unusual properties’ are responsible making water as the ‘solvent of life’. The present post describes the Physical, Chemical and Unusual Properties of Water. We will also discuss the importance or significance of these properties of water in the biological system.

The unusual properties of water are mainly due to three factors:

(A).  The small size of water molecules

(B).  The polarity of water molecules

(C).  The formation of hydrogen bonds between adjacent water molecules

Most important physio-chemical and unusual properties of water can be summarized into the following heads:

(1).  Solvent properties of water

(2).  High heat capacity of water

(3).  High heat of vaporization

(4).  High heat of fusion

(5).  Density and freezing properties

(6).  High cohesion, adhesion and surface tension of water

(7).  Water acts as a reactant

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Botany lecture notes

P Protein (Phloem Protein): Structure, Classifications and Functions


forisomes definition

P – Protein (Phloem Protein)
(Structure, Classification and Functions of Phloem Proteins)

What are P Proteins? 

Ø  P Proteins (Phloem Proteins) are a category of proteins found in the sap of the sieve tubes of the phloem of Angiospermic plants.

Ø  P-proteins were also as called ‘slime bodies’ of ‘slime’ in the old literature.

Ø  P proteins are usually found in the phloem of dicot plants.

Ø  They are very rarely reported in monocots.

Ø  P proteins are completely absent in the phloem of Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms.

Ø  P proteins occur in different forms in the different developmental stages of sieve tubes.

Ø  P proteins can exist in the sieve tubes as tubular, globular, fibrillar, granular and crystalline forms.

Ø  P proteins are highly polar molecules and they can form gel like substance in the presence of water.

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mcq biology

MCQ on Water: Physical and Chemical Properties; pH and Buffer Systems Part 3 (Biochemistry MCQ-13)


biochemistry MCQ Water Buffer 

(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for CSIR JRF/NET Life Science Examination, ICMR JRF Exam, DBT BET JRF Exam,, GATE BT and XL Exam, ICAR JRF NE Exam, PG Entrance Exam, JAM Exam, GS Biology Exam and Medical Entrance Exam)

(1). What is the molecular weight of water?

a.       10 g/mol
b.      15 g/mol
c.       18 g/mol
d.      20 g/mol

(2). What is the H+ ion concentration in pure water?

a.       1 X 10-7 m
b.      1 X 107 m
c.       1 X 10-14 m
d.      1 X 1014 m

(3). The equilibrium constant of ionization reaction of pure water is:

a.       1.8 X 10-14 M
b.      1.8 X 10-16 M
c.       1.8 X 10-7 M
d.      1.8 X 10-7 M

(4). The pH of pure water is neutral, the best explanation for this is:

a.       The pH of pure water is 7
b.      In pure water the concentration of H+ and OH are same
c.       Water do not contain free H+ or OH ions
d.      What will never ionize

(5). What is the concentration of OH ions in a solution with an H+ ion concentration of 1.3 X 10-4M?

a.       7.7 X 10-11 M
b.      7.7 X 10-10M
c.       1.4 X 10-11M
d.      1.4 X 10-10 M

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