Biochemistry of Enzyme Substrate Specificity and its Classification With Examples
.“There is more to life than increasing its speed…”
Enzymes are biological catalysts. They accelerate the rate of metabolic reactions in the cells by reducing the activation energy of the reactants. Almost all enzymes are specialized proteins with definite structural conformations.
Important characteristic features of enzyme are:
1. Catalytic Power (ratio of enzyme catalyzed rate of a reaction to the un-catalyzed rate)
2. Regulation (control of enzymatic reaction)
3. Specificity (Selectivity of enzyme to their substrate)
What is enzyme specificity?
Specificity is the ability of an enzyme to choose exact substrate from a group of similar chemical molecules. The specificity is actually a molecular recognition mechanism and it operates through the structural and conformational complementarity between enzyme and substrate. Enzymes show different degrees of specificity towards their substrate.
The specificity shown by enzymes are grouped into 6 categories
1. Bond specificity
2. Group specificity
3. Substrate specificity
4. Stereo specificity (Optical specificity)
5. Geometrical specificity
6. Co-factor specificity