Biotechnology Lecture Notes

Industrial Fermentation Process (Batch, Fed-batch and Continuous Fermentation)


types of fermentation process

Fermentation Technology
(Types of Industrial Fermentation Processes)

Fermentation: An art from the past, a skill for the future…
Brain McNeil

What is fermentation?

Ø  Fermentation is a metabolic process which converts carbohydrates to alcohols, organic acids or gases by the activity of enzymes of microbial origin.

Ø   Microbes involved in fermentation process: Bacteria and Fungi.

Ø  The process of anaerobic respiration in the muscle cells of animals during exercise which produce lactic acid is also a type of fermentation.

Ø  The technique of fermentation was very ancient in origin.

Ø  Egyptians and Sumerians had the knowledge of the technique of converting starchy grains to alcoholics.

Ø  For a microbiologist, the word ‘fermentation’ means many processes such as:

$   A method of mass cultivation of microbes under aerobic or anaerobic conditions.

$   Any biological process occurs in the absence of oxygen.

$   Spoilage of food by microbial activity.

$   Production of alcoholic beverages, organic acids, antibiotics or biopolymers

$   Partial oxidation of carbohydrates

What is industrial fermentation?

Ø  The intentional use of fermentation technology for the large scale production of microbial biomass or metabolites is called industrial fermentation.

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Human Physiology Lecture Notes

Artery vs Vein: Similarities and Differences (A Comparison Table)


difference between artery and vein

Arteries vs Veins
Similarities and Differences between Arteries and Veins

The circulatory system in an organism ensures the transport of oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide and hormone throughout the body. The blood circulatory system in an animal is facilitated by the heart (the blood pumping organ) and blood vessels (closed pipelines which carry out the circulation of blood throughout the body). There are three types of blood vessels in our body. They are:

(1).    Arteries
(2).    Veins
(3).    Capillaries

(1). Artery: They are blood vessels which originated from the heart and carry blood away from the heart. Arteries usually carry oxygenated blood except for pulmonary and umbilical arteries that carries deoxygenated blood.

(2). Vein: They are blood vessels which carry blood to the heart from various organs of the body. Veins usually carry deoxygenated blood except for pulmonary and umbilical vein that carries oxygenated blood.

(3). Capillaries: They are minutes blood vessels of one cell layer thickness and they facilitate the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and hormones in the blood to individuals cells of different organs. Arteries and veins are interconnected through capillaries and thus the blood circulation forms a closed system in majority of animals.

The current post describes the similarities and differences between Arteries and Veins with a comparison table.

Similarities between Arteries and Veins

Ø  Both are blood vessels.

Ø  Both transport blood.

Ø  Blood transport is unidirectional in both arteries and vein.

Ø  Arteries and veins composed of layers of cells.

Ø  Both arteries and veins composed of three layers of cells namely Tunica externa (external layer), tunica media (middle layer) and tunica interna (internal layer).

Ø  Both arteries and veins are covered by muscular tissues which assist in the contraction or expansion of blood vessels.

Ø  Both undergo vasoconstriction and vasodilation to adjust the blood pressure according to the action of hormones and neurotransmitters.

Ø  Both arteries and veins show anastomosis.

Difference between Arteries and Veins

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Lecture notes in Microbiology

MCQ on History of Microbiology (MCQ 05) with Answer Key


mcq on history of microbiology

MICROBIOLOGY MCQ-05
(Biology / Life Sciences MCQ: Multiple Choice Questions in Microbiology)

MCQ on Scientists & Discoveries in Microbiology Part 2
(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for NEET, AIPMT, M.Sc. and Medical Entrance Examination)


1. Who discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

a.       Koch
b.      Jenner
c.       Pasteur
d.      Virchow

2. Mycobacterium lepree was discovered by:

a.       Pasteur
b.      Jenner
c.       Koch
d.      Hansen

3. Antibodies were discovered by:

a.       Edelman
b.      Porter
c.       Edelman and Porter
d.      Edelman and Hess

4. Streptococcus pneumonia was discovered by:

a.       Pasteur
b.      Jenner
c.       Koch
d.      Hansen

5. Who discovered Bacillus anthacis?

a.       Koch
b.      Pasteur
c.       Jenner
d.      Hansen

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Lecture notes in Microbiology

MCQ on Scientists and Discoveries in Microbiology with Answer Key (MCQ 04)


Scientists in Microbiology MCQ

MICROBIOLOGY MCQ-04
(Biology / Life Sciences MCQ: Multiple Choice Questions in Microbiology)

MCQ on Scientists & Discoveries in Microbiology Part 1
(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for NEET, AIPMT, M.Sc. and Medical Entrance Examination)


1. Scientist who demonstrated that open tubes of broth remained free of microbes when air was free of dust:

a.       Tyndal
b.      Pasteur
c.       Petri
d.      Francesco Redi

2. Who discovered bacterial transformation?

a.       Jenner
b.      Griffith
c.       Messelson
d.      Tautum

3. Who is known as the father of microbiology?

a.       Rasteur
b.      Koch
c.       Leewenhoek
d.      Robert Hook

4. Who is known as the father of medical microbiology?

a.       Koch
b.      Pasteur
c.       Jenner
d.      Tautum

5. Antiseptic properties were first described by:

a.       Jenner
b.      Pasteur
c.       Lister
d.      Beijernic

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Lecture notes in Microbiology

MCQ on Basics of Microbiology with Answer Key and Explanations (Microbiology MCQ03)


microbiology quizzes on basics

MICROBIOLOGY MCQ-03
(Biology / Life Sciences MCQ: Multiple Choice Questions in Microbiology)

MCQ on Basics of Microbiology Part – 1
(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for NEET, AIPMT, M.Sc. and Medical Entrance Examination)

(1). Virulence of a microorganism can be best described as:

a.       The ability to penetrate into the host tissue
b.      The ability to colonize in the host
c.       The ability to produce a pathological symptom
d.      The ability to utilize the machinery of the host
e.       All of the above

(2). “The feeling of general discomfort” is called as:

a.       Arthritis
b.      Symptom
c.       Malaise
d.      Pain

(3). The utilization of elemental carbon by microbes during bio-geochemical cycle is called:

a.       Dissimilation
b.      Immobilization
c.       Mineralization
d.      Neutralization

(4). The first antibody to contact invading microorganism is:

a.       IgG
b.      IgA
c.       IgM
d.      IgD

(5). Which of the following vector(s) was extensively used in human genome project?

a.       Plasmid vector
b.      Yeast Artificial chromosome
c.       Cosmid vector
d.      (b) and (c)

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