Botany lecture notes

Difference between Leptosporangium and Eusporangium (Comparison Table)


Leptosporangium vs eusporangium Development

Eusporangia vs Leptosporangia
(Similarities and Differences between Leptosporangia and Eusporangia of Pteridophytes)

Sporangia are the specialized spore producing structures found in plants. In Pteridophytes, two types of sporangia are present. The two types of sporangia are (1) Eusporangium and (2) Leptosporangium. This classification is proposed by Goebel in 1881 based on the developmental pattern of sporangia. The spores produced in the Eusporangium are called eusporangiospores and those produced in the Leptosporangium are called leptosporangiospores.

Eusporangium: The sporangium develops from a GROUP of INITIAL cells and such a development is called development.

Leptosporangium: The sporangium develops from a SINGLE INITIAL cell and such a development is called Leptosporangiate development.

The present post describes the Similarities and Differences between a Eusporangium and Leptosporangium.

Similarities between Eusporangium and Leptosporangium

Ø  Both Eusporangia and Leptosporangia are the spore producing structures in vascular plants.

Ø  Both are formed on the sporophyll (a specialized leaf) of the diploid sporophytic plant.

Ø  Both produce haploid spores after meiosis.

Ø  The first division of the initials of both sporangia is periclinal (transverse division).

Difference between Eusporangium and Leptosporangium

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Botany lecture notes

Pteridophytes: General Characters (with Power Point Presentation – PPT)


General Characters of Pteridophytes

Pteridophytes General Characteristics
(General Characters of Pteridophytes – The Vascular Cryptogams)

Pteridophytes are plants with Feather like Leaves

Pteridophytes are a group of primitive land plants belongs to the Cryptogams. They are the first evolved plant group with vascular tissue system for the conduction of water and food materials. Due to the presence of vascular tissue, they are called as Vascular Cryptogams. The term Pteridophyte is derived from two words ‘Pteron’ meaning feather and ‘phyton’ meaning plant. Thus, Pteridophytes are the plants with Feather-like leaves. Pteridophytes occupy the intermediate position between Bryophytes and Phanerogams (seed plants). The important characteristics of Pteridophytes are summarized below:

Pteridophyta General CharactersØ  The division Pteridophyta includes primitive living and fossil vascular plants.

Ø  They were originated in the Silurian period and flourished in the Devonian period.

Ø  They are known as ‘Vascular Cryptogams’ – cryptogams with vascular system.

Ø  They show heteromorphic alternation of generation with prominent Sporophytic and Gametophytic phases.

Ø  The main plant body of Pteridophyte is the sporophytic plant (diploid).

Ø  The gametophytic and sporophytic generations are two independent plants (not physically connected).

Habit and Habitat of Pteridophytes

Ø  Pteridophytes show much variation in form, size, and habitat.

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Botany lecture notes

Difference between Bryophytes and Pteridophytes (Comparison Table)


Difference between Pteridophytes and Bryophytes

Bryophytes vs Pteridophytes
(Similarities and Difference between Bryophytes and Pteridophytes)

Bryophytes are most primitive land plants predominantly grow in moist and shaded places. Bryophytes are known as the Amphibians of Plant Kingdom since water is essential for the completion of their life cycle. The Bryophytes includes three groups of plants such as Liverworts, Hornworts and Mosses.

Learn more: Bryophytes General Characteristics

Pteridophytes are better known as the ‘Vascular Cryptogams’ because they possess vascular tissue for the conduction of water and food material. They occupy an intermediate position between Bryophytes and Phanerogams (seed plants).

Bryophytes and Pteridophytes are evolutionarily related and they show many similarities. The present post discusses the Similarities and Differences between Bryophytes and Pteridophytes (with a comparison table).

Similarities between Bryophytes and Pteridophytes

Ø  Both Bryophytes and Pteridophytes are land plants.

Ø  Both possess distinct Gametophytic and Sporophytic generations.

Ø  Both groups show heteromorphic alternation of generation.

Ø  Rhizoids are present in Bryophytes and Pteridophytes.

Ø  Stomata or pores are present in both groups for gaseous exchange.

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Biotechnology Lecture Notes

MCQ on Industrial Biotechnology with Answer Key (Biotechnology MCQ 03)


MCQ on Fermentation Technology

BIOTECHNOLOGY MCQ-03
(Biology / Life Sciences MCQ: Multiple Choice Questions in Biotechnology)

MCQ on Industrial Biotechnology
(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for CSIR JRF/NET Life Science Examination, ICMR JRF Exam, DBT BET JRF Exam, GATE BT and XL Exam, ICAR JRF NE Exam, PG Entrance Exam, JAM Exam, GS Biology Exam and Medical Entrance Exam)

(1). Which of the following materials is used as a bio-plastic?

a.       Polystyrene
b.      Polypropylene
c.       Polyhydroxybutyrate
d.      Dextran

(2). A Trickling filter is used for:

a.       Antibiotic production
b.      Beer production
c.       Citric acid manufacturing
d.      Waste water treatment

(3). A double spiral heat-exchanger is a:

a.       Direct heat exchanger
b.      Indirect heat exchanger
c.       A temperature control device
d.      Thermostat

(4). The importance of Yeast Extract in the industrial fermenter is:

a.       Act as vitamin and micronutrient source
b.      Acts nitrogen source
c.       Acts as carbon source
d.      Acts as carbon and vitamin source

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Biotechnology Lecture Notes

MCQ on Genetic Engineering with Answer Key (MCQ 02)

Human Genome Project Logo

Logo of Human Genome Project (HGP); The Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci (image source: cc wikipedia)


BIOTECHNOLOGY MCQ-02
(Biology / Life Sciences MCQ: Multiple Choice Questions in Biotechnology)

MCQ on Genetic Engineering (Basics)
(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for CSIR JRF/NET Life Science Examination, ICMR JRF Exam, DBT BET JRF Exam, GATE BT and XL Exam, ICAR JRF NE Exam, PG Entrance Exam, JAM Exam, GS Biology Exam and Medical Entrance Exam)

1. The first crop plant genome sequenced

a.       Maize
b.      Wheat
c.       Rice
d.      Barley

2. Urea and Formamide can:

a.       Increase Tm of DNA
b.      Decrease the Tm of DNA
c.       Helps faster re-annealing of DNA
d.      Does not effects denaturation of DNA

3. The chromogenic substrate of X-gal is:

a.       5-chloro-4-bromo-3indolyl-beta-D-galactoside
b.      5-bromo-4-chloro-3indolyl-beta-D-galactoside
c.       5-chloro-5-bromo-3indolyl-beta-D-galactoside
d.      5-bromo-5-chloro-3indolyl-beta-D-galactoside

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