Molecular Biology Tutorials

Philadelphia Chromosome and Oncogenic BCR ABL Gene Translocation in CML


Philadelphia Translocation

Philadelphia Chromosome (PH)
(Philadelphia Translocation, PH and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia – CML)

Translocation is a Structural Aberration of Chromosome

Translocation is a type of structural aberration of the chromosome where a segment of chromosome gets translocated to another chromosome. There may be two types of translocation based on the nature of the exchange. They are:

(1). Homologous Translocation

(2). Heterologous Translocation

In homologous translocation, the exchange of chromosomal segments occurs between the homologous chromosomes. In heterologous translocation, the chromosomal segments are exchanged between non-homologous chromosomes. The heterologous translocation in most of the cases will be a reciprocal translocation (exchange of segments between chromosomes).

Translocation causes ‘Position Effect’

The translocation of chromosomes leads to a phenomenon in molecular genetics called the ‘Position Effect’. The position effect is the change in the expression pattern of a gene due to its current position in the chromosome. For example, a normally active gene may be converted to an inactive gene when it is translocated into a new position or vice versa.

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Biostatistics Study Materials

Graphical Representation of Data PPT (Power Point Presentation)


Biometric PPT

Graphical Representation of Data PPT
(Line Diagram, Bar Diagram, Histogram, Frequency Curve, Ogive and Pie Chart)

What is graphical representation? Importance of Graphical Representation, Advantages of Graphical Representation, Disadvantages of Graphical Representation, Things to remember when constructing a Graph, Different types of graphs / charts: Line Diagram, Bar diagram, Simple Vertical Bar Diagram, Subdivided Bar Diagram, Multiple Bar Diagram, Percentage Bar Diagram, Histogram, Frequency Polygon, Frequency Curve, Ogive, Less Than Ogive, Greater Than Ogive, Calculating Median from Ogive, Pie Chart, Relative Frequency and Pie Diagram.

Learn more: Lecture Note in Graphical Representation of Data Part 1, Part 2

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Biostatistics Study Materials

Graphical Representation of Data (Frequency Polygon, Frequency Curve, Ogive and Pie Diagram)


Graphs for Data Representation

Graphical Representation of Data: Part 2
(Data Representation Methods: Frequency Polygon, Frequency Curve, Ogive and Pie Chart)

This post is the continuation of the Previous Post (Graphical Representation of Data Part 1).

(3). Frequency Polygon

Ø  The Frequency Polygon is a curve representing a frequency distribution.

Ø  In frequency polygon, the mid values of each class are first obtained.

Ø  In a graph paper, the frequency of each class is plotted against the mid-value of class (on the X axis).

Ø  Then these points are then joined by a straight line.

Ø  This straight line is extended in both directions to meet on the X axis.

Ø  The first point is joined to the lower limit of the first class and the last point is joined to the upper limit of last class. Thus, the frequency polygon is a closed graph.

Ø  The graph now obtained is called Frequency polygon.

Example: Construct a Frequency Polygon using the following data

 

data for frequency polygon

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Biostatistics Study Materials

Graphical Representation of Data (Line Graph, Bar Diagram & Histogram)


Data Representation

Graphical Representation of Data: Part 1
(Diagrammatic Data Representation: Line Chart, Bar Diagrams and Histogram)

Graphical Representation of Data / Variables

Ø  The data presentation in statistics may be Numerical or Graphical.

Ø  If the data is presented in the numerical form, it will not attract the attention of the audience.

Ø  In order to attract the attention of the audience, Graphical Representation method is usually adopted.

Ø  Graphical Representation: It is the representation or presentation of data as Diagrams and Graphs.

Ø  The statistical graphs were first invented by William Playfair in 1786.

Ø  In graphical data representation, the Frequency Distribution Table is represented in a Graph.

Advantages of Graphical Representation of Data

Ø  Data are presented pictorially.

Ø  Give better insight and understanding of the data.

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Biostatistics Study Materials

Frequency Distribution Table PPT


Biometric PPT

Frequency Distribution Table PPT
(Concept of Statistical Tables: Frequency Distribution)

‘Tables’ vs ‘statistical tables’, Things to remember when creating a ‘table’, Components of a ‘table’, Understand the concept of ‘class’ and ‘frequency’, Concept of Range and Class Intervals, Inclusive and Exclusive Class, How a statistical table is prepared? (Frequency distribution), What is ‘tally mark’ method?

Learn more: Lecture Note in Frequency Distribution

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