Anatomical Difference between Stem and Root

Anatomical Difference between Shoot and Root

Anatomical Difference between Stem and Root
(Stem Anatomy vs Root Anatomy)

Stem: Stem is the part of the plant which lies above the surface of the soil. It arises from the plumule of the embryo. Stem shows positively phototropic and negatively geotropic growth. Stem possess nodes and internodes. Branches, leaf, flower bud and bracts are developed from nodes.

Root: Root is the part of the plant which lies below the surface of the soil. It arises from the radical of the embryo. Root shows positively geotropic and negatively phototropic growth. Root is not differentiated into nodes and internodes.

The present post summarize the anatomical difference between the Stem and Root with a Comparison Table.

Plant Anatomy Diagram Dicot Stem

Anatomical Difference between Stem and Root

Sl. No.Anatomy of Stem (Shoot)Anatomy of Root
1Epidermal cells are cutinized in stem.Root epidermal cells are not cutinized.
2Function of the epidermis is protection.Function of epidermis is absorption of water and nutrients.
3Stomata are present in the epidermis of young stem.Stomata are completely absent.
4Stem hairs unicellular or multicellular.Root hairs are always unicellular.
5Stem hairs are NOT the out-growth of epidermis.Root hairs are the out-growth of epidermis
6Cortex usually narrow.Cortex is broad
7Hypodermis presentHypodermis usually absent.
8Cortex usually differentiated into outer, middle and inner cortex.Cortex usually undifferentiated.
9Outer cortical cells possess chloroenchyma.Chlorenchyma completely absent in roots. (Present in aerial roots).
10Endodermis NOT distinctEndodermis distinct and prominent
11Casparian thickening not prominent.Casparian thickening very prominent in the endodermis
12Pericycle, if present, multilayeredPericycle is usually single layered.
13Pericycle do not have any role in secondary thickeningPericycle has a role in secondary thickening. Lateral roots arise from endodermis.
14Vascular tissue conjoint and collateral or bicollateralVascular tissue radial.
15Xylem endarch (protoxylem oriented towards the interior) Xylem exarch (protoxylem oriented towards the exterior)
16Xylem and phloem contain fibresFibres absent in the xylem and phloem

Record Diagram for Dicot Root

Cellular Digram Dicot Root Primary

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