**Graphical Representation of Data- Part-1 – Tables & Tabulation**

*(Tabulation of Data and Things to Remember when Creating a Data Table)*

*“Science is organized knowledge… *

*Wisdom is organized life…*

**Immanuel Kant**

**What is Data or Variable?**

Ø Data or variables in biostatistics (statistics) are **individual observations** of a natural phenomenon or an experiment.

Ø All scientific investigations involve observations on the variables.

Ø Observations made on these variables are obtained in the form of **DATA**.

Ø The reason for calling data as variables is because it has the tendency of variation.

Ø For example, if you take the size of leaves of a rose plant with many leaves the value of the size of each leaf (individual data) shows variation.

Ø The individual observations form the data and the data thus collected are called **Raw Data**.

Ø The raw data is an ungrouped or unorganized data and it should be classified based on some criterions.

Ø Only the classified or grouped data can be used for logical interpretations and further statistical analysis.

**Data Representation Methods**

**Ø Data presentation (representation):** *‘For the maximum utilization of data and its correct interpretation, it should be presented in an appropriate way’*.

Ø Different types of data representations methods are:

**(1). Tables**

**(2). Graphs / Charts**

**(3). Combination of Tables and Graphs**

The present post describes the details of Tables and the general rules to be followed when constructing a data table.

**Learn more:** Graphical Representation of Data- Part 2: Charts and Graphs

**Table (Tabulation of data)**

**Ø Table definition:** *‘A table is a set of facts or figures systematically displayed especially in rows and columns’.*

Ø Collected data (raw data) are classified and presented it as **TABLES** by tabulation.

**Ø Tabulation:** *“The process of presenting the classified data in a scientific manner and in an orderly sequence is called Tabulation”.*

Ø The tabulation involves a systematic arrangement of data (information) in the form of rows and columns.

Ø The main objective of tabulation is to present and interpret complex information in a simple and systematic way.

Ø Statistical tables and data tables are different concepts. Statistical tables are better known as Frequency Table or Frequency Distribution.

**Learn more:** Frequency Distribution / Frequency Table

*Data Table: Example*

The following Table shows the results of the annual examination of BA and B.Sc. Programmes 2013-14 in a college.

**Significance or Objectives of Data Tabulation:**

Ø Simplify the complexities of raw data

Ø Make the data more attractive

Ø Ensure the proper usage of data

Ø Simplify the presentation

Ø Facilitate comparison

Ø Make data easy to handle for further processing

Ø Help to draft the final report of the study

**Rules to be followed for the Tabulation of Data**

Ø The table should have a table **number**.

Ø The table should have a proper **title**.

Ø The table should fit the **size** of the paper.

Ø The number of rows and columns should not be too small or too large.

Ø Each column and row should have specific and **self-explanatory titles**.

Ø As far as possible, figures should be **approximated** before tabulation.

Ø Items should be arranged in a specific way (alphabetical, chronological, size, geography etc.)

Ø The units of measurements of each heading and sub-heading should be indicated.

Ø Foot note(s) can be given if necessary.

Ø As far as possible, the values to be compared should be kept in adjacent columns or rows.

Ø If data is secondary, the **source** of data should be mentioned

**More Biostatistics Lecture Notes & Study Materials**

**Key Questions**

*1. What is Data?
2. Why the data is called ‘variable’?
3. What is meant by ‘raw data?
4. What is meant by ‘Graphical Representation of Data’?
5. Define ‘Table’
6. What are the objectives of tabulation?
7. What are the things to be remembered when creating a ‘Table’?*

**Download the PPT of this Topic…**