Graphical Representation of Data 1: Tables and Tabulation with PPT


Classification of Data

Graphical Representation of Data- Part-1 – Tables & Tabulation
(Tabulation of Data and Things to Remember when Creating a Data Table)

“Science is organized knowledge…
Wisdom is organized life…
Immanuel Kant

What is Data or Variable?

Ø  Data or variables in biostatistics (statistics) are individual observations of a natural phenomenon or an experiment.

Ø  All scientific investigations involve observations on the variables.

Ø  Observations made on these variables are obtained in the form of DATA.

Ø  The reason for calling data as variables is because it has the tendency of variation.

Ø  For example, if you take the size of leaves of a rose plant with many leaves the value of the size of each leaf (individual data) shows variation.

Ø  The individual observations form the data and the data thus collected are called Raw Data.

Ø  The raw data is an ungrouped or unorganized data and it should be classified based on some criterions.

Ø  Only the classified or grouped data can be used for logical interpretations and further statistical analysis.

Data Representation Methods

Ø  Data presentation (representation): ‘For the maximum utilization of data and its correct interpretation, it should be presented in an appropriate way’.

Ø  Different types of data representations methods are:

(1).    Tables

(2).    Graphs / Charts

(3).    Combination of Tables and Graphs

The present post describes the details of Tables and the general rules to be followed when constructing a data table.

Learn more: Graphical Representation of Data- Part 2: Charts and Graphs

Table (Tabulation of data)

Ø  Table definition: ‘A table is a set of facts or figures systematically displayed especially in rows and columns’.

Ø  Collected data (raw data) are classified and presented it as TABLES by tabulation.

Ø  Tabulation: “The process of presenting the classified data in a scientific manner and in an orderly sequence is called Tabulation”.

Ø  The tabulation involves a systematic arrangement of data (information) in the form of rows and columns.

Ø  The main objective of tabulation is to present and interpret complex information in a simple and systematic way.

Ø  Statistical tables and data tables are different concepts. Statistical tables are better known as Frequency Table or Frequency Distribution.

Learn more: Frequency Distribution / Frequency Table

Data Table: Example

The following Table shows the results of the annual examination of BA and B.Sc. Programmes 2013-14 in a college.

Importance of tabulation of data

Significance or Objectives of Data Tabulation:

Ø  Simplify the complexities of raw data

Ø  Make the data more attractive

Ø  Ensure the proper usage of data

Ø  Simplify the presentation

Ø  Facilitate comparison

Ø  Make data easy to handle for further processing

Ø  Help to draft the final report of the study

Rules to be followed for the Tabulation of Data

Ø  The table should have a table number.

Ø  The table should have a proper title.

Ø  The table should fit the size of the paper.

Ø  The number of rows and columns should not be too small or too large.

Ø  Each column and row should have specific and self-explanatory titles.

Ø  As far as possible, figures should be approximated before tabulation.

Ø  Items should be arranged in a specific way (alphabetical, chronological, size, geography etc.)

How to Construct a Statistical Table

Ø  The units of measurements of each heading and sub-heading should be indicated.

Ø  Foot note(s) can be given if necessary.

Ø  As far as possible, the values to be compared should be kept in adjacent columns or rows.

Ø  If data is secondary, the source of data should be mentioned





More Biostatistics Lecture Notes & Study Materials

Bio-statistics Short Notes


Key Questions

1.      What is Data?
2.      Why the data is called ‘variable’?
3.      What is meant by ‘raw data?
4.      What is meant by ‘Graphical Representation of Data’?
5.      Define ‘Table’
6.      What are the objectives of tabulation?
7.      What are the things to be remembered when creating a ‘Table’?


Download the PPT of this Topic…

Table and Tabulation of Data PPT


Get our Updates on BIOSTATISTICS in your E-mail Inbox
We will not spam your account…

Enter your e-mail address


Don’t forget to Activate your Subscription…. Please See Your E-Mail…


You may also like…

@. Graphical Representation of Data- Part 2: Graphs and Charts

@. What is Frequency Distribution?

@. Data: Definition, Classification and Data Collection Methods

@. Type I and Type II Error in Statistics

@. Biostatistics Lecture Notes

@. Biostatistics PPT

@. Lecture Notes

@. Biology PPTs

@. Video Tutorials

@. Biology MCQ

@. Question Bank

@. Difference between topics…

@. Practical Aids


Please Share for your Students, Colleagues, Friends and Relatives…

Facebooktwittergoogle_pluspinterestlinkedin
Posted in Biostatistics, Lecture Notes and tagged , , , , , .

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *