Why Biodiversity is Rich in Tropics?

World map indicating tropics and subtropics

Tropical Area Highlighted in Pink (source wikipedia)

Tropical Area

Ø  Tropical region is the part of earth surrounding the equator

Ø  Exactly it cover the region between tropic of cancer and tropic of capricorn

Tropic of Cancer: 23.43º towards Northern Hemisphere

Tropic of Capricorn: 23.43° towards Southern Hemisphere

Ø  Tropical regions receive maximum sunlight over the year

Ø  Tropical vegetation are the most productive vegetation on earth

Ø  Tropical areas are rich in biodiversity

Ø  Majority of the endemic species of earth belongs to tropical areas

Ø  Majority of the Mega-biodiversity Centers and Mega-biodiversity hotspots are in the tropics

Ø  In bio-geography, tropical area are divided into:

(1). Paleotropics: Africa, Asia and Australia

(2). Neotropics: Caribbean, Central America and South America

Why biodiversity is rich in tropics?

Tropical areas are rich in biodiversity than temperate regions, because:

@.  Warm temperature and high humidity of tropical region are favourable for most of the species on earth

@.  Tropical areas have more stable climate than temperate regions

@.  Tropical communities of plants and animals are older than temperate communities

@.  Thus tropical communities got more time to evolve

@.  Tropical communities have more specializations for adaptions

@.  In tropical areas, there is greater pressure from pests, parasites and disease. This does not allow a single species to predominate

@.  Tropical areas receive more solar energy over the year than temperate region

@.  Thus tropical communities are more productive than temperate communities

@.  Tropical soil is the most fertile soil in the biosphere

@.  This rich soil supports a wider range of species

Because of all these reasons, tropical areas are richer in biodiversity

El bosque inundado amazonico-cosmocaixa-2009 (2)

A Tropical Rainforest (source wikipedia)


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