Solid State Fermentation (SSF)
(Solid State Fermentation: Technology, Advantages and Disadvantages)
What is Solid State Fermentation (SSF)?
In Solid State Fermentation, also called Solid Substrate Fermentation or SSF, the fermentation substrate or media will be in the solid state. Here the microorganisms are grown on a solid substratum in the absence or near absence of free water. The moisture content of the substratum in SSF is usually maintained below 15%.
The solid state fermentation is most commonly carried out for the production of fermented food products such as bread, fermented fish, meat, yogurt, cheese and pickles. The microbial fermentation increases the nutrient content and flavor of food products. It also increases the digestibility of foods. The cultivation of edible mushrooms on a suitable substratum is also a solid state fermentation process.
Substrates / Media in Solid State Fermentation
The substrates commonly used in SSF are usually very complex, heterogeneous and are insoluble in water. These substrates include cereals grains, wheat bran, lingo-cellulosic materials such as wood shavings, sawdust, molasses etc. In most of the cases, the substrate or the raw materials were undergone through a pre-treatment such as soaking, boiling in water, mechanical pre-treatment or chemical treatment. These pre-treatments increase the bioavailability of nutrients for the microbes to act on them.
Instrumentation and Growth Kinetics in Solid State Fermentation