Botany lecture notes

Citrus Canker PPT


Plant Science PPT

Citrus Canker PPT
(Symptoms, Causal Organism, Etiology and Control Measures)

Citrus Canker: Symptoms of Citrus Canker, What is the Symptoms and Causal Organism of Citrus Canker Disease, Disease Cycle (Etiology) and Control Measures of Citrus Canker, Economic Loss due to Citrus Canker, Xanthomonas citri. 

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Botany lecture notes

Blast Disease of Paddy PPT


Plant Science PPT

Blast Disease of Paddy PPT
(Symptoms, Causal Organism, Etiology and Control Measures)

Blast Disease of Paddy: Symptoms of Paddy Blast, What is the Causal Organism of Paddy Blast Disease, What is the Causal Organism of Blast of Paddy, Disease Cycle (Etiology) and Control Measures of Blast Disease of Paddy. 

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Botany lecture notes

Cassava Mosaic Disease PPT


Plant Science PPT

Cassava Mosaic Disease PPT
(Symptoms, Causal Organism, Etiology and Control Measures)

Cassava Mosaic Disease, Tapioca Mosaic Disease, Tapioca Mosaic Virus, Causal Organism of Tapioca Mosaic Disease, How to Control Cassava Mosaic Disease? What are the symptoms of Tapioca Mosaic Disease, Structure of Tapioca Cassava Mosaic Virus. 

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vein clearing and vein banding

Mosaic Disease of Tapioca: Symptoms and Control Measures


mosaic disease of tapioca

Mosaic Disease of Cassava or Tapioca
(Cassava Mosaic Disease: Symptoms, Causal Organism, Etiology and Control Measures)

Cassava / Tapioca*

viral mosaic in leavesØ  Cassava or Tapioca (Botanical Name: Manihot esculenta; Family: Euphorbiaceae).

Ø  Cassava is a vegetatively propagated tuber crop plant.

Ø  The root tubers of tapioca are rich in starch.

Ø  Cassava is native to South America. Now the cassava is cultivated worldwide.

Ø  Cassava is a staple food in many regions for about 600 million people worldwide.

Ø  Linamarin is a cyanogenic glucoside found in the roots of cassava plants.

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Botany lecture notes

Host Selective and Non-Host Selective Toxins in Host Parasite Interactions and Pathogenesis


toxins in plant pathogen interactions

Toxins in Plant Pathogenesis
Toxins in Plant Pathogen Interaction

The process of pathogenesis (the onset of diseased condition) in plants is facilitated by many factors such as virulence of the pathogen, susceptibility of the host, presence of suitable environmental conditions and various enzymes and metabolites of pathogens. Previously we have discussed the importance of different enzymes involved in plant pathogen interactions. These enzymes facilitate the entry of the pathogen into the host and help to colonize inside the host cell. The production of different hydrolytic enzymes may not always result in the establishment of pathogen inside the host tissue. Certain plant pathogen may successfully invade the host tissue area but fail to induce the onset of disease. These findings highlighted the involvement of certain toxins, microbial toxins or aggressins, in the establishment of diseased conditions in plants. The present post describes the Toxins involved in plant pathogen interaction and pathogenesis with examples.

What is meant by ‘toxin’ in Plant Pathology?

Ø  Definition: Any substances produced by a pathogen which is injurious to host and it directly and immediately play a crucial role in pathogenesis.

Ø  Toxins involved in plant parasite interactions are also called as aggressin.

Ø  According to Koch’s postulates, a substance to be called as a ‘toxin’ should follow the following criterions:

@.   The compound must be isolated from the diseased plant

@.   It should NOT be present in the healthy plant

@.   Compound must be chemically characterized

@.   When isolated toxin is reintroduced to a healthy host, it should produce the original symptoms.

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