Botany lecture notes

Apical Meristem in Shoot: Structure and Organization


Shoot Apical Meristem
Apical Organization of Shoot Meristem

Apical meristem

Ø  Apical meristem is a patch of meristematic tissue present in the apex (tips) of shoot and roots in plants.  

Shoot apex:

Ø  Shoot apex is the growing tip of the stem.

Ø  It is an undifferentiated region with meristematic cells.

Ø  From this region the plant growth proceeds.

Ø  The shoot apex also produces lateral organs such as leaves, branches and flowers.

Ø  Below the apical meristem, different tissue zones are progressively differentiated.


Tissue zones in the shoot apex

Ø  Three main tissue zones are present on the shoot apex of plants, they are:

$.  Protoderm: Protoderm gives rise to the epidermis of the plant.

$.   Procambium: Procambium gives rise to primary vascular tissue (xylem & phloem).

$.   Ground meristem (fundamental meristem): The ground meristem gives rise endodermis, pericycle, cortex, medulla and pith.

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Botany lecture notes

Nodal Anatomy of Angiosperms: Unilacunar, Trilacunar and Multilacunar Node with Examples

Classification of Nodes in Plants

Nodal Anatomy of Plants with Diagram
(Leaf Gap, Leaf Trace: Unilacunar, Trilacunar and Multilacunar Nodes in Angiosperms)

Anatomy of Nodal and Inter-nodal Region are Different:

The stem of plants is differentiated into nodes and internodes. The anatomical features of the nodal region are quite different from that of the inter-nodal region. This anatomical difference is due to the presence of Vascular Supply to the leaves and branches from the main vascular cylinder of the stem.

Nodal Region of Higher Plants Posses Leaf Gaps and Leaf Traces

Each leaf that originates from the node, of higher plants possesses vascular tissue and these vascular tissues of the leaves are connected to that of the stem. A vascular strand that extends between the vascular cylinder of stem and the base of the leaf is called Leaf Trace or Foliar Trace.

Even if the leaf trace possesses both xylem and phloem, the relative amount of xylem will be more in the leaf trace than phloem. Moreover, the proximal portion, (portion near the vascular cylinder of the stem) contains only the xylem. Whereas, the distal end of the leaf trace (near to the leaf base) contains both xylem and phloem.

Leaf trace helps to transport water and minerals from the xylem to the leaf lamina for photosynthesis. The circulation of photosynthetic products from the leaf lamina to the phloem of the stem is also facilitated by the phloem strands in the leaf traces.

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