Applications of Restriction Enzymes
(The Significance / Importance and Uses of Restriction Endonucleases in Biotechnology)
Restriction endonucleases (also called as molecular scissors) are a class of nuclease enzymes which cut the DNA strand at precise locations. They are specific endonuclease enzymes in the cells which first recognize the specific sequence (called restriction sites) within the DNA strand and cleave the phosphodiester backbone of the DNA at specific sites.
The Nobel Prize in 1978 (in Physiology and Medicine) was shared by Werner Arbor, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Smith for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their applications in molecular genetics. Restriction enzymes are now an inevitable tool for the manipulation of DNA in various recombination studies both in vitro and in vivo. The main applications of restriction enzymes are:
(1). Construction of Restriction Maps
(2). Construction of DNA Fingerprints
(3). Recombinant DNA Technology (rDNA Technology)