Botany lecture notes

Difference Between Meristematic Tissues and Permanent Tissues in Plants


Meristem Vs Permanent Tissue

Meristematic Tissues Vs Permanent Tissues
Similarities and Difference between Meristematic Tissues and Permanent Tissues

Tissue is a group of cells with more or less common origin and doing a specific function. Plant tissues are broadly classified into two categories based on their capacity of cell division. They are (1) Meristematic tissues and (2) Permanent tissues. Meristem is a type of tissue system in plants, composed of a mass of undifferentiated cells and their primary function is to take part in the growth of plants.

Permanent tissues are differentiated tissues doing specific functions such as conduction, providing mechanical support or carrying out photosynthesis etc. Permanent tissues are originated and differentiated from meristematic tissues.

In this post we will discuss about the similarities and differences between two fundamentally different tissue systems namely Meristematic tissues and Permanent tissues.

Similarities between Meristematic Tissues and Permanent Tissues:

Ø  Both are tissue systems in plants

Ø  Both composed of group of cells, doing specific function

Ø  Meristematic tissues and some permanent tissues (parenchyma) are homogenous with a single type of cells

Difference between Meristematic Tissues and Permanent tissues:

(1). Meristematic Tissues:

(1). Meristematic tissue composed of undifferentiated cells

(2). Meristems will be always a simple tissue, composed of only one type of cells

(3). Cells are always living

(4). Cells always contain dense cytoplasm

(5). Cells always contain prominent nucleus

(6). Cells divide very rapidly

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Botany lecture notes

What are the Characteristics of Meristems & Meristematic Cells?

Mitosis (261 14) Pressed; root meristem of onion (cells in prophase, anaphase)

Meristematic Cells of Root Apex Showing Cell Division (source wikipedia)

What are Meristems?

Meristem is a group of plant cells that remain in a continuous state of division. It is a tissue system in plants called meristematic tissue. The term meristem was proposed by Karl Nägeli from a Greek word ‘merizein’ which means ‘to divide’. The meristem composed of rapidly dividing undifferentiated mass of cells. Meristems are usually found in the growing region of plant organs such as shoot apex and root apex. Usually meristem originates from the embryonic cells.

The primary function of meristem is to assist in plant growth and development. Meristematic cells are characteristically different from other differentiated cells in terms of many aspects. This post describes the characteristic features of meristematic cells in plants.

What are Characteristics of Meristems / Meristematic Tissues?

§.  Meristem composed of rapidly dividing cells

§.  Usually situated at the growing apex of plant parts (root apex or shoot apex)

§.  Meristematic cells are undifferentiated

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mcq biology

MCQ on Fatty Acids with Answer Key (Biochemistry MCQ-9)


Difference between cis and trans fatty acid

‘cis’ and ‘trans’ fatty acids (source wikipedia)

MCQ on Fatty Acids
Biochemistry MCQ 009
(Multiple Choice Questions in Biology / Life Science)
(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for JRF/NET Life Science Examination, ICMR JRF, DBT BET JRF, GATE, ICAR NET, PG Entrance)


(1). Most commonly occurring fatty acids in nature are:

a.       Even number of carbon atoms in an un-branched chain of 12 – 24 carbons
b.      Odd number of carbon atoms in an un-branched chain of 12 – 24 carbons
c.       Even number of carbon atoms in a branched chain of 12 – 24 carbons
d.      Odd number of carbon atoms in a branched chain of 12 – 24 carbons

(2). In most of the naturally occurring mono-unsaturated fatty acids, the double bonds will be placed between ____________.

a.      C6 – C7
b.      C7 – C8
c.       C8 – C9
d.      C9 – C10

(3). Which of the following molecule acts as a sugar carrier in animals?

a.       Warfarin
b.      Ubiquinone
c.       Plastoquinone
d.      Dolichol

(4). The best source of trans fatty acid in diet is ____________.

a.       Vegetables
b.      Ground nut
c.       Dairy products
d.      Fruits

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biological chemistry

Difference Between Animal Fats and Plant Fats


Saturated fats and Unsaturated fats

Animal fats Vs Plant Fats
Similarities and Difference between Animal Fats and Plant Fats

Fats, oils and waxes are the general terms describing a structurally diverse bio-macromolecule called ‘lipids’. Lipids are esters of glycerol and fatty acids. One glycerol molecule is esterified with three fatty acid residues to form a triglyceride. Physical, chemical and structural diversity of fats varies with the fatty acid composition in the triglycerides. Lipids with saturated fatty acids (saturated fat) tend to be solid at room temperature (25oC) and hence we generally call it as ‘fat’. On the other hand, lipids with unsaturated fatty acids (unsaturated fat) tend to be liquid at room temperature and thus they are called ‘oils’. Lipids are present in all living organisms including Archaebacteria. They are very abundant in plants and animals. Fats of animal origin are called as ‘animal fat’ and those of plants are called ‘plant fats’. In this post we will discuss about what are the difference between animal fats and plant fats.


Similarities between animal fats and plant fats

Ø  Both animal and plant fats are triglycerides (one glycerol esterified with three fatty acid residues)

Ø  Both are food reserve of the cell

Ø  Unsaturated and saturated fats occurs in both plants and animals

Ø  Majority of the physical and chemical characters of animal and plant fats are same


Difference between Animal fats and plant fats

Animal fats (Fats)

1. Example for animal fat: Butter fat, Beef fat

2. Animals fats are relatively rich in saturated fatty acids

3. Animals fats due to their saturation, tend to stay solid at room temperature, hence commonly known as ‘fats’

4. Iodine number of animal fats will be relatively less (iodine number denote the degree of un-saturation in fatty acids)

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mcq biology

MCQ on Lipids and Fats (Biochemistry MCQ 009) with Answer Key


Fat triglyceride shorthand formula

An Unsaturated Fat (source wikipedia)

MCQ on Lipids, Fats & Waxes
Biochemistry MCQ 008
(Multiple Choice Questions in Biology / Life Science)
(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for JRF/NET Life Science Examination, ICMR JRF, DBT BET JRF, GATE, ICAR NET, PG Entrance)


(1). Which of the following molecule can act as molecular chaperons for assisting the folding of proteins?

a.      Carbohydrates
b.      Vitamins
c.       Lipids
d.      Amides

(2). Which of the following macro-molecule can be most structurally diverse among living world?

a.      Carbohydrates
b.      Proteins
c.       Nucleic acids
d.      Lipids

(3). Fat storing cells of vertebrates are called

a.      Hepatocytes
b.      Asterocytes
c.       Adipocytes
d.      Melanocytes

(4). The enzyme abundantly distributed in adipocytes and germinating seeds are

a.      Proteases
b.      Lipase
c.       Cellulase
d.      Nuclease

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