Botany lecture notes

Vascular Bundles: Structure, Composition and Classification

Plant Vascular Tissue System

“It is not so much that the cells make the plant; it is rather that the plant makes the cells”
Heinrich Anton de Bary

easybiologyclass what are vascular bundlesWhat are vascular bundles?

Vascular bundles (VB) are the components of vascular tissue system in plants. They are also called as ‘fascicle’. They are the part of TRANSPORT system in plants. It is one of the PRIMARY tissue systems in plants. More than that is a perfect example for a COMPLEX tissue system in plants. (Complex tissue = composed of more than one type of cells)

What are the components of vascular bundles?

Vascular bundle consists of TWO main parts.

@. Xylem: the water conducting tissue

@. Phloem: the food conducting tissueContinue reading

mcq biology

GATE XL 2016 Life Sciences Model Question Paper Zoology Optional Paper With Answer Key and Explanations Set 1 (MCQ 018)

GATE XL 2016 Life Sciences
ZOOLOGY Model Question Paper (MCQ 018)

GATE Life Sciences Sample Questions

(1). Which of the following taxa of Arthropoda possess prehensors?

a.       Trilobits
b.      Arachnidas
c.       Chilopodas
d.      Diplopodas

(2). In biological systematics the term ‘incertae sedis’ represents:

a.       An extinct taxa
b.      A fossil taxa
c.       A fossil specimen whose complete part is not yet characterized
d.      An enigmatic taxa

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biological chemistry

Artemisinin: A Wonder Phyto-drug Against Malarial Parasite: Plasmodium falciparum; & Nobel Prize Winning Contribution of Prof. Youyou Tu, China (Nobel Prize 2015: Physiology and Medicine)

Nobel Prize 2015 Physiology and Medicine


Youyou Tu China Nobel Prize 2015 Physiology and Medicine

source: The Hindu

Artemisinin is an anti-malarial parasite drug extracted from a Chinese medicinal plant called sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua; Asteraceae family). It is also known as qinghaosu in Chinese and it is the most rapid acting drug currently available against the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine is shared by William C. Campbell, Satoshi Omura and Youyou Tu for the discoveries of therapies against parasitic infections which saved millions of life over the globe. Among the three Nobel laureates, Professor Youyou Tu of China shares half of the Prize money for the credit of isolation, purification and structure elucidation of Artemisinin, the anti-malarial parasite drug for the first time from a Chinese traditional medicinal plant Artemisia annua. Professor Tu is the first China based Woman scientist to win the science Nobel.

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Zoology lecture notes and study materials

Phylum Arthropoda : General Characters

what are the general characters of phylum arthropoda

Arthropoda is a largest Phylum of Kingdom Animalia, includes about 80% of all known animal species in the biosphere including terrestrial and aquatic biomes. The phylum includes insects, crustaceous, centipedes, millipedes, spiders etc. The word Arthropoda is derived from two Greek words, ‘arthro’ = joint and ‘podo’ = foot. Phylum Arthropoda is characterized by:

@. Segmented body plan

@. Paired jointed appendages

@. Chitinaceous exoskeleton


General characters of Phylum Arthropoda:

@. Cosmopolitan distribution

@. Presence of exoskeleton, made of chitin

@. Chitin= a structural homo-polysaccharide of N-acetylglucosamine linked by β-1, 4 glycosidic bond

@. Segmented appearance of body

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