Botany lecture notes

Apical Meristem in Shoot: Structure and Organization


shoot-apical-meristem

Shoot Apical Meristem
Apical Organization of Shoot Meristem

Apical meristem

Ø  Apical meristem is a patch of meristematic tissue present in the apex (tips) of shoot and roots in plants.  

Shoot apex:

Ø  Shoot apex is the growing tip of the stem.

Ø  It is an undifferentiated region with meristematic cells.

Ø  From this region the plant growth proceeds.

Ø  The shoot apex also produces lateral organs such as leaves, branches and flowers.

Ø  Below the apical meristem, different tissue zones are progressively differentiated.

apical-meristem

Tissue zones in the shoot apex

Ø  Three main tissue zones are present on the shoot apex of plants, they are:

$.  Protoderm: Protoderm gives rise to the epidermis of the plant.

$.   Procambium: Procambium gives rise to primary vascular tissue (xylem & phloem).

$.   Ground meristem (fundamental meristem): The ground meristem gives rise endodermis, pericycle, cortex, medulla and pith.

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ICMR JRF Life Sciences (2018) Solved Question Paper PDF


ICMR JRF Previous Year Papers

ICMR JRF Life Sciences Examination – 2018
Original Question Paper PDF

Official / Original Previous Year (Old) Solved Question Paper of ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) Life Sciences (XL) Examination July 2018  with Answer Key as PDF. ICMR aspirants can download the question paper as single PDF file for your exam preparation. To download the question paper, please click on the download link below the PDF preview. Please inform the Admin if you find any mistake in the answer key.

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Biostatistics Study Materials

Difference between Primary and Secondary Data: Comparison Table


primary vs secondary data

Primary Data vs Secondary Data – Statistics
(Similarities and Differences between Primary Data and Secondary Data)

The data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. In statistics, the data are the individual observations. The scientific investigations involve observations on variables. The observations made on these variables are obtained in the form of ‘data’.

Based on the source, the data is categorized into TWO types: (1) Primary Data and (2) Secondary Data.

Primary Data: Data collected for the first time by the original investigator.

Secondary Data: The data used in statistical investigations which have already been collected by some other for their purpose and published.

The present post discusses the Differences between Primary Data and Secondary Data with a Comparison Table.

Similarities between Primary and Secondary Data

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Free Net Life Science Study Materials

CSIR JRF NET Life Sciences June 2018 (Original Solved Question Paper with Answer Key – PDF)


net june 2017 official answer key

CSIR JRF NET Life Sciences June, 2018
Solved Question Paper PDF

Official / Original Previous Year (Old) Solved Question Paper of CSIR Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) and National Eligibility Test (NET) Life Sciences (XL) Examination June 2018  with Answer Key as PDF. CSIR aspirants can download the question paper as single PDF file for your exam preparation. To download the question paper, please click on the download link below the PDF preview. Please inform the Admin if you find any mistake in the answer key.

Download All Previous Year NET Solved Papers: NET Life Science Old Papers (Solved - PDF - Download)

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Biostatistics Study Materials

Types of Experimental Designs in Statistics (RBD, CRD, LSD, Factorial Designs)


Experimental design examples

Types of Experimental Designs in Statistics
Completely Randomized Design (CRD), Randomized Block Design (RBD), Latin Square Design (LSD) – Advantages and Disadvantages

In the previous post, we have discussed the Principles of Experimental Designs. There we discussed the concept of Experimental design in statistics and their applications. In the present post, we will discuss different types of statistical experimental designs, its applications, advantages and limitations.

Learn more: Principles of Experimental Designs

Different types of Experimental Designs

Ø  Experimental designs are broadly classified into TWO categories:

(A).   Single-Factor Experiments

(B).  Multi-factor Experiments

(A). Single-Factor Experiments:

Ø  Single factor experiments are those experiments in which only a single factor varies while all others are kept constant.

Ø  Here the treatments consist exclusively of the different levels of the single variable factor.

Ø  All other factors are applied uniformly to all plots.

Ø  Examples of Single-Factor Experimental Designs:

(1). Completely Randomized Design (CRD)

(2). Randomized Block Design (RBD)

(3). Latin-Square Design (LSD)

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