Difference between Cyclic and Noncyclic Photophosphorylation – Comparison Table

compare cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation

Cyclic Photophosphorylation vs Non-cyclic Photophosphorylation
(Similarities and Differences between Cyclic and Non-cyclic Photophosphorylation)

The process of photosynthesis is completed in two main steps – Light reaction and Dark reaction. The Light reaction is the light-dependent reaction where the assimilatory powers (ATP and reduced coenzymes) are generated in the grana of chloroplasts. During the light reaction, photolysis of water and evolution of oxygen take place. In the dark reaction (light independent reaction), the assimilatory powers synthesized in the light reaction are utilized to reduce the CO2 to carbohydrates.

During the light reaction, energy in the sunlight is captured by the reaction centers of photosystems (PS I and/or PS II) and they expel electrons with high energy. These electrons then pass through a series of complexes called Electron Transport System (ETS) to synthesize the assimilatory powers. During the pathway of electrons through the ETS, phosphorylation reaction occurs at specific points which results in the synthesis of energy-rich APT molecules. Since this phosphorylation is occurring in presence of light, it is called photophosphorylation. Depending upon the path of electrons in the electron-transport-system of the primary photochemical reaction, there are two types of photophosphorylation processes. They are (1) Cyclic photophosphorylation and (2) Noncyclic photophosphorylation. The present post discusses the similarities and differences between cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation with a comparison table.

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Difference between Photorespiration and Respiration – Comparison Table

Photorespiration vs Respiration

Photorespiration vs Respiration
(Similarities and Differences Photorespiration and Respiration)

Photorespiration is a type of respiration process occurs in plants in presence of light and at higher concentrations of oxygen. The photorespiration is also called C2 cycle or glycolate metabolism since the first stable product of the photorespiration reaction is a 2 carbon compound called glycolate. The respiration (also called normal respiration or dark respiration) is a metabolic pathway which releases energy-rich molecules by the breakdown of sugar molecules such as glucose. Even though the photorespiration and the normal respiration occur in the presence of oxygen, the two pathways are independent process and show considerable differences. The photorespiration is not universally present in all plants; rather it usually occurs in C3 plants. The process of photorespiration is essentially absent in C4 plants. The present post discusses the similarities and differences between photorespiration and normal respiration with a comparison table.

Learn more: C3 vs C4 Cycle of Photosynthesis

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Difference between Micronutrients and Macronutrients – Comparison Table

Micronutrients vs macronutrients

Micronutrients vs Macronutrients
(Difference between Micronutrients and Macronutrients in Plants)

Nutrients are chemical substances required for the proper growth and functioning of all living organisms including plants and animals. The nutrients are also called essential elements because, in the absence of these chemicals, plants and animals cannot complete their life cycle. Important nutrients required by the plants for their proper growth are C, H, O, N, P, K, Cs, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, B, Cl and Ni. Except for C, H and O, all other nutrients are absorbed from soil as inorganic ions by the root cells.

Learn more: Mineral Absorption in Plants

In Plants, the nutrients are classified into two categories based on how much quantity they are required by the cells. They are (1) Micronutrients and (2) Macronutrients.

Micronutrients: These nutrients are required in very less amount when compared to macronutrients. Micronutrients of plants are Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, B, Cl and Ni.

Macronutrients: These nutrients are required in relatively large amounts for the proper functions of the cells. C, H, O, N, P, K, Cs, S and Mg are the macronutrients of plants. Among these, C, H, and O are NOT absorbed from the soil by root. N, P and K are called Primary nutrients. Ca, S and Mg are called Secondary nutrients.

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Mechanism of Mineral Absorption in Plants (Plant Physiology Short Notes)

Passive and Active Mineral Absorption

Mineral Absorption in Plants
(The Mechanism of Active and Passive Absorption of Minerals in Plants)

Plants absorb minerals as ions

Plants absorb minerals from the soil in the form of inorganic ions. Earlier it was thought that the absorption of minerals takes place in plants along with the absorption of water. In fact, the process of mineral absorption and water absorption are two separate processes. In order to absorb any minerals from the soil, it should be dissolved in the water.

Plants absorb most of the minerals through the roots. The large surface area of roots and its ability to absorb minerals from the soil even in minor concentration makes the roots more efficient in mineral absorption than any other organs. In roots, the mineral absorption usually takes place through the meristematic region of the root tip.

Minerals can be absorbed by both Passive and Active Methods

There are two types of mineral absorptions based on the involvement of metabolic energy. They are (1) Passive minerals absorption (2) Active minerals absorption.

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Difference between Active and Passive Water Absorption – Comparison Table

Active vs Passive Absorption of Water

Active vs Passive Water Absorption
(Difference between Active and Passive Absorption of Water in Plants)

Plants absorb water along with minerals from the soil through root by a process called ‘absorption of water’. Based on the involvement of metabolic energy, the water absorption process in plants may be of two types – (1) Active absorption and (2) Passive absorption.

Active absorption: It is the absorption of water, usually against the concentration gradient, by the utilization of metabolic energy (energy from ATP).

Passive absorption: Absorption of water without the utilization of metabolic energy.


Apoplast vs Symplast

image source: wikipedia

The present post discusses the Difference between Active and Passive water absorption process in plants with a comparison table.

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