(Types of Industrial Fermentation Processes)
Fermentation: An art from the past, a skill for the future…
What is fermentation?
Ø Fermentation is a metabolic process which converts carbohydrates to alcohols, organic acids or gases by the activity of enzymes of microbial origin.
Ø Microbes involved in fermentation process: Bacteria and Fungi.
Ø The process of anaerobic respiration in the muscle cells of animals during exercise which produce lactic acid is also a type of fermentation.
Ø The technique of fermentation was very ancient in origin.
Ø Egyptians and Sumerians had the knowledge of the technique of converting starchy grains to alcoholics.
Ø For a microbiologist, the word ‘fermentation’ means many processes such as:
$ A method of mass cultivation of microbes under aerobic or anaerobic conditions.
$ Any biological process occurs in the absence of oxygen.
$ Spoilage of food by microbial activity.
$ Production of alcoholic beverages, organic acids, antibiotics or biopolymers
$ Partial oxidation of carbohydrates
What is industrial fermentation?
Ø The intentional use of fermentation technology for the large scale production of microbial biomass or metabolites is called industrial fermentation.