Human Physiology Lecture Notes

Difference between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems


difference between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system

Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
(Similarities and Differences between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems)

The involuntary or reflex functions in the body are controlled by a part of peripheral nervous system called Autonomous Nervous System (ANS). ANS regulate the functions of internal organs (visceral functions) particularly the functions of heart, stomach and intestine.  The Autonomic Nervous System composed of two components:

            (1). Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)

           (2). Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS or PSNS)

Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS): They are the part of ANS which originate from the spinal cord of the thoracic and lumbar region. They control the ‘fight-or-flight’ response or the ‘sympatho-adrenal response’ in the body. SNS prime the body for acting in threatening situations for survival. The sympathetic nervous system acts in the body as complementary to the action of Parasympathetic Nervous System.

Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS or PSNS): Part of ANS originates from the spinal cord and medulla which control the ‘rest-and-digest’ or ‘feed-and-breed’ activities in the body. They act in the body as complementary to the action of SNS.

The present post describes the similarities and differences between Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System

Similarities between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System

Ø  Both are the part of ANS.

Ø  Both originate from the spinal cord.

Ø  Both have huge influence on physiological process of the body such as respiration, circulation, digestion, urination and reproduction.

Ø  Both have role in maintaining the homoeostasis of the body.

Ø  Both composed of pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic neurons.

Difference between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System

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Botany lecture notes

Difference between Parenchyma and Collenchyma: A Comparison Table


collenchyma vs parenchyma

Parenchyma vs Collenchyma
(Similarities and Differences between Parenchyma and Collenchyma)

Parenchyma and Collenchyma are the Simple tissue System in Plants. The present post describes the similarities and differences between PARENCHYMA and COLLENCHYMA.

Similarities between Parenchyma and Collenchyma

Ø  Both parenchyma and collenchyma are simple permanent tissues in the plants.

Ø  Both are differentiated cells.

Ø  Both are living cells with primary cell wall.

Ø  Both cells possess cytoplasm and cell organelles including the nucleus.

Ø  Both are the components of ground tissue system in plants.

Ø  Both cells can do photosynthesis if chloroplasts are present in them.

Ø  Both can store food materials as starch grains.

Ø  Pits are absent in the cell wall of both parenchyma and collenchyma.

Ø  Plasmodesmatal connections between cells occur in both cells.

Differences between Parenchyma and Collenchyma

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Botany lecture notes

Difference between Protophloem and Metaphloem: A Comparison Table


protophloem vs metaphloem

Protophloem vs Metaphloem
Similarities and Difference between Protophloem and Metaphloem

Vascular bundles (fascicles) are the component of the stelar system in higher plants and their main function is the conduction of water, minerals and food materials. Typically, a vascular bundle composed of xylem and phloem arranged together as bundles. In a young stem, both in dicots and monocots, Phloem, the food conducting tissue of vascular bundles, are differentiated into PROTOPHLOEM and METAPHLOEM based on the structural and functional modifications of their elements. The present post describes the similarities and difference between Protophloem and Metaphloem in a primary vascular bundle of a young stem.

Similarities between Protophloem and Metaphloem

Ø  Both protophloem and metaphloem can conduct food materials.

Ø  Both are complex tissues, composed of many types of cells.

Ø  Both components contain living and dead cells.

Ø  Both are developed from the primary meristem, the pro-cambium.

Ø  Protophloem and metaphloem develop only in primary vascular bundles.

Difference between Protophloem and Metaphloem

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Botany lecture notes

Difference between Vessels and Tracheids: A Comparison Table


vessels vs tracheids

Vessels vs Tracheids
Similarities and Differences between Vessels and Tracheids

Vessels and tracheids are the components of xylem, the water and minerals conducting tissue in plants. Vessels and tracheids are jointly known as the tracheary elements of the xylem. Even though, both vessels and tracheids show functional similarities, they do possess some striking differences. The present post describes the similarities and differences between vessels and tracheids.

Similarities between Vessels and Tracheids

Ø  Both vessels and tracheids are the components of xylem.

Ø  Both are dead cells at maturity.

Ø  Both can transport water.

Ø  Both possess secondary lignified cell wall.

Ø  Both are present in primary and secondary xylem.

Difference between Vessels and Tracheids

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Botany lecture notes

Difference between Xylem and Phloem: A Comparison Table


Xylem and Phloem Notes

Xylem vs Phloem
Similarities and Differences between Xylem and Phloem

Xylem and Phloem are the components of the vascular tissue system in plants. In the young parts of the stem, the xylem and phloem are together organized as vascular bundles. Both xylem and phloem are complex tissues which composed of more than one types of cells.  The present post describes the similarities and differences between Xylem and Phloem.

Similarities between Xylem and Phloem

Ø  Both xylem and phloem are complex tissue composed of more than one type of cells.

Ø  Both are the components of vascular tissue system of plants.

Ø  Both contain living and dead cells.

Ø  Both contain parenchymatous cells.

Ø  Both contain fibres.

Ø  In primary vascular bundles both xylem and phloem are differentiated into proto- and meta- elements.

Ø  Both shows primary and secondary growth.

Ø  Both xylem and phloem are developed from the cambium.

Ø  Both the term ‘xylem’ and ‘phlolem’ are proposed for the first time by Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli

Difference between Xylem and Phloem

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