Lecture notes in Microbiology

Microbiology MCQ 01 Practice Questions Part 1 with Answer Key and Explanations


microbiology quizzes

MICROBIOLOGY MCQ-01
(Biology / Life Sciences MCQ: Multiple Choice Questions in Microbiology)

Quizzes on Microbiology: Practice Test Part 1
(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for CSIR JRF/NET Life Science Examination, ICMR JRF Exam, DBT BET JRF Exam, GATE BT and XL Exam, ICAR JRF NE Exam, PG Entrance Exam, JAM Exam, GS Biology Exam and Medical Entrance Exam)

1. The process in which all living cells, spores and viruses are completely destroyed from an object is called _____.

a.       Disinfection
b.      Pasteurization
c.       Sterilization
d.      Antisepsis

2. UHT sterilization involves high temperature exposure of objects for _____.

a.       1 – 3 seconds
b.      1 – 3 minutes
c.       1 – 3 hours
d.      10 – 30 hours

3.  _______ is an antiseptic.

a.       Chlorine
b.      Copper Sulphate
c.       Ozone
d.      70% ethanol

4. Error rate of Taq DNA polymerase is _____

a.       10-4
b.      10-14
c.       10-24
d.      10-40

5. The best form of DNA to transform E. coli is ______.

a.       Linear
b.      Covalently closed
c.       Nicked circles
d.      Nicked linear

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Botany lecture notes

P Protein (Phloem Protein): Structure, Classifications and Functions


forisomes definition

P – Protein (Phloem Protein)
(Structure, Classification and Functions of Phloem Proteins)

What are P Proteins? 

Ø  P Proteins (Phloem Proteins) are a category of proteins found in the sap of the sieve tubes of the phloem of Angiospermic plants.

Ø  P-proteins were also as called ‘slime bodies’ of ‘slime’ in the old literature.

Ø  P proteins are usually found in the phloem of dicot plants.

Ø  They are very rarely reported in monocots.

Ø  P proteins are completely absent in the phloem of Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms.

Ø  P proteins occur in different forms in the different developmental stages of sieve tubes.

Ø  P proteins can exist in the sieve tubes as tubular, globular, fibrillar, granular and crystalline forms.

Ø  P proteins are highly polar molecules and they can form gel like substance in the presence of water.

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Botany lecture notes

Complex Tissue System in Plants: Part 2 – Phloem – Structure, Components and Classification (with PPT)


cell types in phloem

Phloem
Structure, Composition & Classification of Primary and Secondary Phloem

What is phloem?

Phloem is a complex tissue system in plants. It is the food conducting tissue of vascular plants. Together with xylem, they form the vascular tissue system. The phloem composed of several types of cells among which some are living cells and some are dead. The term ‘phloem’ was introduced Nageli (1853) from a Greek word ‘phloios’ meaning ‘bark’. The ‘bark’ is a non-technical term describing all tissue outside the secondary xylem of the plant. Botanically the bark includes secondary phloem, cortex, primary phloem and periderm. The current post describes the structure, composition and classification of phloem.

Location of phloem in plants:

Ø  Usually, the phloem is situated external to xylem.

Ø  In leaves, the phloem is located on the abaxial side (lower side).

Ø  In some plants (members of Cucurbitaceae and Convolvulaceae), the phloem is present on both external and internal to xylem. Such a vascular bundle is called bicollateral vascular bundle.

Ø  Phloem present internal to the xylem is called ‘internal phloem’ or intra-xylary phloem.

Ø  Phloem located external to the xylem is called ‘external phloem’.

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Botany lecture notes

Tyloses: Definition, Structure and Functions


tyloses definition

Tyloses

What are Tyloses?

Tyloses (singular – tylosis) are the balloon like outgrowth of parenchymatous cells to the lumen of tracheids or vessels of the secondary xylem. The axial and ray parenchyma of the xylem develops protrusion and these protrusions enter or invade into the lumen of tracheids or vessels through pits. This invasion of parenchyma occurs when tracheids or vessels become inactive or damaged.

Who discovered Tyloses?

Malpighi (1686) for the first time reported the ‘balloon-shaped sacs’ in the lumen of vessels of heartwood and he named it as tyloses based on the Greek word ‘Thyllen’ meaning ‘bag’ or ‘container’.

How Tyloses are Formed?

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Botany lecture notes

Complex Tissue Systems in Plants: Part-1 Xylem – Structure, Components and Classification (with PPT)


cell types in xylem

Xylem
(Structure, Composition & Classification of Primary and Secondary Xylem)

What is vascular tissue?

The tissue associated with conduction of water, minerals and food materials in plants are called vascular tissue. Plants with a well-developed conductive system are thus called as ‘vascular plants’. Vascular plants are also known as ‘Tracheophyta’ (‘trachaea’ = vessels, a component of xylem, ‘phyta’= plants).

The vascular systems in plants composed of two types of tissues

(1). Xylem: Tissue for the conduction of water and minerals.

(2). Phloem: Tissue for the conduction of food materials.

Learn more: Difference between Xylem and Phloem

Both the xylem and phloem are complex tissues composed of more than one types of cells.  Xylem and phloem are closely organized in plants. The vascular bundles found in the primary structures of plants are formed by the association of xylem and phloem.

What is xylem?

The xylem is one of the conductive tissues in plants. It is a complex tissue composed of many types of cells. The term xylem was proposed by Nageli (1858) and he derived the word from a Greek word ‘xylos’ meaning wood. The main function of xylem is to conduct water and minerals from roots to leaves. The secondary xylem also provides mechanical support due to the presence of thick lignified cell wall.

What are the components or elements of xylem?

The xylem composed of four types of cells. Among these cells, some cells are living and some are dead.

The four elements of xylem are:

(1).  Tracheids

(2).  Vessels

(3).  Xylem Fibres

(4).  Xylem Parenchyma

(1). Tracheids

Tracheids are the fundamental cell type in the xylem. They are elongated tube like cells with tapering ends and chisel like in appearance. The cells are non-living at their maturity and the mature cells are empty without protoplast. They have highly lignified secondary cell wall and the cells angular and polygonal in cross section. The average length of tracheid is 5 – 6 mm. Major portions of the cell wall of tracheids are perforated with pits. They also possess pit pairs between two adjacent tracheids at their common walls. Pits may be simple circular pits or advanced bordered pits.

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