Human Physiology Lecture Notes

Difference between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems


difference between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system

Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
(Similarities and Differences between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems)

The involuntary or reflex functions in the body are controlled by a part of peripheral nervous system called Autonomous Nervous System (ANS). ANS regulate the functions of internal organs (visceral functions) particularly the functions of heart, stomach and intestine.  The Autonomic Nervous System composed of two components:

            (1). Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)

           (2). Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS or PSNS)

Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS): They are the part of ANS which originate from the spinal cord of the thoracic and lumbar region. They control the ‘fight-or-flight’ response or the ‘sympatho-adrenal response’ in the body. SNS prime the body for acting in threatening situations for survival. The sympathetic nervous system acts in the body as complementary to the action of Parasympathetic Nervous System.

Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS or PSNS): Part of ANS originates from the spinal cord and medulla which control the ‘rest-and-digest’ or ‘feed-and-breed’ activities in the body. They act in the body as complementary to the action of SNS.

The present post describes the similarities and differences between Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System

Similarities between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System

Ø  Both are the part of ANS.

Ø  Both originate from the spinal cord.

Ø  Both have huge influence on physiological process of the body such as respiration, circulation, digestion, urination and reproduction.

Ø  Both have role in maintaining the homoeostasis of the body.

Ø  Both composed of pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic neurons.

Difference between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System

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Biotechnology Lecture Notes

DBT BET JRF Exam 2017 Notification – Apply Online


BET 2017 Online Examination

DBT BET JRF 2017 Notification, Apply Online

Applications are invited from bonafied India citizens, residing in India for the award of DBT-Junior Research Fellowship” (DBT JRF) for pursuing research in frontier areas of Biotechnology. The programme is being coordinated by Biotech Consortium India Limited (BCIL), New Delhi. The candidates will be selected through an Online Test “Biotechnology Eligibility Test (BET)”. Based on performance in BET, two categories of merit list will be prepared (Category I and Category). Candidates selected under category I (top 275) will be eligible to avail fellowship under the programme. These will be tenable in any university / Institute in India where the selected candidates can register for Ph.D programme. Candidates selected under Category II (next 100 in merit list) will be eligible to be appointed in any DBT sponsored project and avail fellowship from the project equivalent to NET/GATE, subject to selection through institutional selection process. There will be no binding on Principal investigators of DBT sponsored projects to select JRF/SRF for their project form category II list. Selection in category II will not entitle student for any fellowship from DBT-JRF programme.

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Ecology Lecture Notes

Difference between Oligotrophic and Eutrophic Lakes


characteristics of lake ecosystem

Oligotrophic vs Eutrophic Lakes
Similarities and Difference between Oligotrophic vs Eutrophic Lakes / Ponds

Lake Ecosystem is an example for a lentic ecosystem. An aquatic ecosystem with stationary or relatively still water is called lentic ecosystem. Based on the trophic state* and productivity, the lake ecosystem is divided into three categories.

(1). Oligotrophic lakes

(2). Eutrophic lakes

(3). Mesotrophic lakes

(1). Oligotrophic lake: a lake with low productivity, low nutrients and clear water with drinking water quality.

(2). Eutrophic lake: a lake with high productivity, high nutrients and with dark water. The water is usually not good for drinking purpose.

(3). Mesotrophic lake: a lake with intermediate nutrient level and productivity.

This post describes the similarities and differences between an Oligotrophic Lake Ecosystem and a Eutrophic Lake Ecosystem as a comparison table.

Similarities between Oligotrophic and Eutrophic Lakes / Ponds

Ø  Both are aquatic ecosystems.

Ø  Both are natural ecosystems.

Ø  Both contain biological and abiological components.

Ø  Water in both ecosystems is rich in oxygen.

Ø  Both are lentic ecosystems.

Ø  Both ecosystems show thermal stratification.

Difference between Oligotrophic and Eutrophic Lakes/Ponds

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Biotechnology Lecture Notes

Batch Fermentation vs Continuous Fermentation Process: Similarities and Differences – A Comparison Table


Difference continuous and batch fermentation

Batch Fermentation vs Continuous Fermentation Process
(Similarities and difference between Batch Fermentation and Continuous Fermentation Process)

Batch Fermentation and Continuous Fermentation are the two commonly adopted Industrial Fermentation methods for the scale production of microbial biomass or metabolites.

Batch Fermentation: Here the fermenter is first filled with the raw material (carbon source). Then the microbes are added and allowed to ferment the raw material under optimum pH and aeration. The products remain in the fermenter until the completion of fermentation. After fermentation, the products are extracted and the fermenter is cleaned and sterilized before next round. Thus here the fermentation is done as separate batches.

Continuous Fermentation: Here the exponential growth rate of the microbes is maintained in the fermenter for prolonged periods of time in by the addition of fresh media are regular intervals. The metabolite or the product of fermentation is extracted for the overflow from the fermenter. Thus unlike batch fermentation, in continuous fermentation, the fermentation process never stops in between and it continues to run for a long period of time with the addition of nutrients and harvesting the metabolites at regular intervals.

The present post describes the Similarities and Differences between Batch Fermentation and Continuous Fermentation Process as a Comparison Table.

Similarities between Batch Culture and Continuous Culture Fermentation Methods

Ø  Both are industrial fermentation methods for the large scale production.

Ø  Both methods can be used for the production of microbial biomass or products.

Ø  Both run under controlled environmental conditions

Ø  The mechanical components of fermenter is almost similar in both types




Difference between Batch Fermentation and Continuous Fermentation Process

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Biotechnology Lecture Notes

Industrial Fermentation Process (Batch, Fed-batch and Continuous Fermentation)


types of fermentation process

Fermentation Technology
(Types of Industrial Fermentation Processes)

Fermentation: An art from the past, a skill for the future…
Brain McNeil

What is fermentation?

Ø  Fermentation is a metabolic process which converts carbohydrates to alcohols, organic acids or gases by the activity of enzymes of microbial origin.

Ø   Microbes involved in fermentation process: Bacteria and Fungi.

Ø  The process of anaerobic respiration in the muscle cells of animals during exercise which produce lactic acid is also a type of fermentation.

Ø  The technique of fermentation was very ancient in origin.

Ø  Egyptians and Sumerians had the knowledge of the technique of converting starchy grains to alcoholics.

Ø  For a microbiologist, the word ‘fermentation’ means many processes such as:

$   A method of mass cultivation of microbes under aerobic or anaerobic conditions.

$   Any biological process occurs in the absence of oxygen.

$   Spoilage of food by microbial activity.

$   Production of alcoholic beverages, organic acids, antibiotics or biopolymers

$   Partial oxidation of carbohydrates

What is industrial fermentation?

Ø  The intentional use of fermentation technology for the large scale production of microbial biomass or metabolites is called industrial fermentation.

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