Botany lecture notes

Difference between Asexual and Sexual Reproduction – Comparison Table


sexual vs asexual reproduction

Asexual Reproduction vs Sexual Reproduction
(Similarities between Sexual and Asexual Reproduction)

Reproduction is a biological process by which new individuals (progenies) are formed from their parents. There are two types of reproductions in organisms: sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction.

asexual reproduction in yeastAsexual reproduction: A method of reproduction, usually present in lower animals and plants where progenies are produced from a single parent without the formation of gametes and fertilization. Example: division of bacteria by binary fission, budding of Hydra and yeasts, and vegetative reproduction in plants.

Sexual reproduction: A method of reproduction where the progenies are produced by two parents of separate sexes. These parents produce morphologically and sexually different gametes. The union of gametes results in the formation of zygote. The zygote develops into new progeny.

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Properties and Characteristics of Alpha Particles, Beta Particles and Gamma Rays


Properties alpha, beta and gamma rays

Properties of Alpha Rays, Beta Rays and Gamma Rays

Unstable atoms on radioactive decay emit particles such as alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. These are energy particles, and by producing these energy-rich particles the unstable radioactive atom tries to attain atomic stability. The present post discusses the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of alpha, beta and gamma particles.

Compare alpha, beta and gamma rays

image source: wikipedia

Alpha Particles

Ø  They are also called alpha rays, designated as α2+.

Ø  Alpha rays consist of two protons and two neutrons bound tougher into particles.

Ø  They are identical to the helium nucleus.

Ø  They are produced by the alpha decay of radioactive materials.

Ø  They are positively charged particles.

Ø  Contain 2 positive charges.

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Difference between Alpha, Beta and Gamma Rays – Comparison Table


Difference between Alpha and Beta particles

Alpha Rays vs Beta Rays vs Gamma Rays
(Compare Alpha Particles, Beta Particles and Gamma Rays – Table)

An unstable atomic nuclei loss its energy by emitting radiations such as alpha rays, beta rays and gamma rays by a process called radioactive decay. A substance with such an unstable nucleus is called the radioactive substance. The particles produced by radioactive decay, i.e., alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays are considerably different with distinct physical, chemical and biological properties.

Alpha rays: They are also called alpha particles. Alpha rays consist of two protons and two neutrons bound tougher into particles. It is identical to the helium nucleus. Alpha particles are produced as a result of the alpha decay of a radioactive material such as Uranium-238.

Beta rays: They are also called beta particles. Beta rays are high energy high and speed electrons emitted from a radioactive material after the beta decay. Potassium-40 is a beta emitter.

Compare alpha, beta and gamma rays

image source: wikipedia

Gamma rays: They are also called gamma radiations. Gamma radiations are electromagnetic radiations with high energy and high penetration capacity produced from a radioactive material after the gamma decay. Radium-226 is a gamma emitter.

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Difference between Cyclic and Noncyclic Photophosphorylation – Comparison Table


compare cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation

Cyclic Photophosphorylation vs Non-cyclic Photophosphorylation
(Similarities and Differences between Cyclic and Non-cyclic Photophosphorylation)

The process of photosynthesis is completed in two main steps – Light reaction and Dark reaction. The Light reaction is the light-dependent reaction where the assimilatory powers (ATP and reduced coenzymes) are generated in the grana of chloroplasts. During the light reaction, photolysis of water and evolution of oxygen take place. In the dark reaction (light independent reaction), the assimilatory powers synthesized in the light reaction are utilized to reduce the CO2 to carbohydrates.

During the light reaction, energy in the sunlight is captured by the reaction centers of photosystems (PS I and/or PS II) and they expel electrons with high energy. These electrons then pass through a series of complexes called Electron Transport System (ETS) to synthesize the assimilatory powers. During the pathway of electrons through the ETS, phosphorylation reaction occurs at specific points which results in the synthesis of energy-rich APT molecules. Since this phosphorylation is occurring in presence of light, it is called photophosphorylation. Depending upon the path of electrons in the electron-transport-system of the primary photochemical reaction, there are two types of photophosphorylation processes. They are (1) Cyclic photophosphorylation and (2) Noncyclic photophosphorylation. The present post discusses the similarities and differences between cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation with a comparison table.

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Difference between Photorespiration and Respiration – Comparison Table


Photorespiration vs Respiration

Photorespiration vs Respiration
(Similarities and Differences Photorespiration and Respiration)

Photorespiration is a type of respiration process occurs in plants in presence of light and at higher concentrations of oxygen. The photorespiration is also called C2 cycle or glycolate metabolism since the first stable product of the photorespiration reaction is a 2 carbon compound called glycolate. The respiration (also called normal respiration or dark respiration) is a metabolic pathway which releases energy-rich molecules by the breakdown of sugar molecules such as glucose. Even though the photorespiration and the normal respiration occur in the presence of oxygen, the two pathways are independent process and show considerable differences. The photorespiration is not universally present in all plants; rather it usually occurs in C3 plants. The process of photorespiration is essentially absent in C4 plants. The present post discusses the similarities and differences between photorespiration and normal respiration with a comparison table.

Learn more: C3 vs C4 Cycle of Photosynthesis

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