Antibodies vs Immunoglobulins
(Why are Antibodies called as Immunoglobulins?)
All Antibodies are Immunoglobulins but all Immunoglobulins are NOT Antibodies.
Antibodies are the antigen binding proteins found on the B-cell membrane and secreted by the plasma cells of the immune system. Antibodies are commonly called as ‘IMMUNOGLOBULINS’. In the present post we will see, what is the exact difference between an Immunoglobulin and an Antibody, and also why antibodies are called immunoglobulins?
What are Antibodies?
Ø Antibodies are globular proteins (globulins) present in the serum and tissue fluids.
Ø They form one of the major components of the blood plasma proteins.
Ø In the blood, three types of globulin proteins are present and they are named as alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) globulins.
Ø All antibodies are gamma (γ) globulins.
Ø Antibodies confer protection against microbial pathogens and, they act as the first line defense against infections.
Ø Antibodies are highly specific and they specifically bind to foreign particles called antigens.
Ø The antibodies can protect us from the invading microbes in four different ways:
1. They can prevent the attachment of microbes to the mucosal surface of the host.
2. They reduce the virulence of the pathogen by neutralizing the toxins and viruses.
3. They facilitate phagocytosis by opsonization of microbes.
4. They can activate the complement system.
Innate Immunity vs Adaptive Immunity
Differences between Innate (Native) Immunity and Adaptive (Acquired) Immunity
The main function of immune system in our body is to prevent or resist infections by pathogenic microorganisms. The immune system in an organism is initiated with the recognition of the invading microorganism. The immunity against the invading microbes shown by our body can be grouped into two broad categories – (1) Innate Immunity and (2) Adaptive Immunity. These two immune systems act together to defend the body against infections and diseases.
(1). Innate Immunity: It is also called the Native Immunity. Innate immunity is the nonspecific resistance that an individual possesses by birth. This immune system operates through physical barriers such as skin, chemical in the blood and by immune cells. The innate immunity is due to the genetic makeup of the organism and it does not require the prior contact with microorganisms. The innate immunity acts as the very first level of defense system in our body.
(2). Adaptive Immunity: It is also called as Acquired Immunity or Antigen Specific Immunity. It is the specific resistance acquired by an individual during its life and it is mediated by B- and T- lymphocytes after exposure to specific antigen. The adaptive immune system is characterized by the formation of antibodies (immunoglobulins) and immunological memory.
Active Immunity vs Passive Immunity
(Similarities and Differences between Active and Passive Immunity)
The acquired immunity is the immunity acquired by an organism during its life. The acquired immunity against a particular microbe may be induced by the host’s response to the microbe or by the transfer of antibodies or lymphocytes specific for the microbes. Based on the above criteria, the acquired immunity is categorized into two types – (1) Active Immunity and (2) Passive Immunity.
Active Immunity: The active immunity is the direct response of your body against the pathogens. It is induced by the exposure to a foreign antigen such as the antigen of microbes. It is an adaptive response of the individual after contact with specific pathogen or antigen.
DBT BET JRF 2018 Notification, Apply Online
Applications are invited from bonafide India citizens, residing in India for the award of “DBT-Junior Research Fellowship” (DBT JRF) for pursuing research in frontier areas of Biotechnology. The programme is being coordinated by Biotech Consortium India Limited (BCIL), New Delhi. The candidates will be selected through an Online Test “Biotechnology Eligibility Test (BET)”. Based on performance in BET, two categories of merit list will be prepared (Category I and Category). Candidates selected under category I (top 275) will be eligible to avail fellowship under the programme. These will be tenable in any university / Institute in India where the selected candidates can register for Ph.D programme. Candidates selected under Category II (next 100 in merit list) will be eligible to be appointed in any DBT sponsored project and avail fellowship from the project equivalent to NET/GATE, subject to selection through institutional selection process. There will be no binding on Principal investigators of DBT sponsored projects to select JRF/SRF for their project form category II list. Selection in category II will not entitle student for any fellowship from DBT-JRF programme.
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