Ecology Lecture Notes

Biodiversity: Introduction (Definition, Classification, Importance and Measurement of Biodiversity)

What is biodiversity?

Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better’
Albert Einstein

What is biodiversity?

@. Biodiversity- definition: “variability among living organisms”

@. Biodiversity is the variety and variability of genus, species and ecosystem between and within

@. It is the number of different organisms & their relative frequency in an ecosystem

@. The term Biodiversity is coined by Walter Rosen, 1985

@. About 50 million sps. of plants, animals & microbes are existing in the world

@. Among this only 2 million are identified so far

@. Biodiversity also includes: Variability of genus, Variability of varieties, Variability of species, Variability of populations in different ecosystems, Variability in relative abundance of species

@. Knowledge of biodiversity is essential for sustainable utilization of resources

@. Biological resources provide us: Nourishment, Clothing, House, Fuel, Medicine and Revenue

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Ecology Lecture Notes

Why Biodiversity is Rich in Tropics?

World map indicating tropics and subtropics

Tropical Area Highlighted in Pink (source wikipedia)

Tropical Area

Ø  Tropical region is the part of earth surrounding the equator

Ø  Exactly it cover the region between tropic of cancer and tropic of capricorn

Tropic of Cancer: 23.43º towards Northern Hemisphere

Tropic of Capricorn: 23.43° towards Southern Hemisphere

Ø  Tropical regions receive maximum sunlight over the year

Ø  Tropical vegetation are the most productive vegetation on earth

Ø  Tropical areas are rich in biodiversity

Ø  Majority of the endemic species of earth belongs to tropical areas

Ø  Majority of the Mega-biodiversity Centers and Mega-biodiversity hotspots are in the tropics

Ø  In bio-geography, tropical area are divided into:

(1). Paleotropics: Africa, Asia and Australia

(2). Neotropics: Caribbean, Central America and South America

Why biodiversity is rich in tropics?

Tropical areas are rich in biodiversity than temperate regions, because:

@.  Warm temperature and high humidity of tropical region are favourable for most of the species on earth

@.  Tropical areas have more stable climate than temperate regions

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Botany lecture notes

HSST Botany Question Paper 2012 by Kerala PSC with Answer Key and Explanations Part 4

Acanthaceae, Strobilanths

Strobilanths kunthiana (source wikipedia)

Kerala PSC HSST Botany 2012 Examination
Higher Secondary School Teacher: Junior & Senior
Question Paper Code 40/2012 (Cat. NO. 449/2010)

Original question paper of Kerala PSC HSST Botany Junior / Senior (Higher Secondary School Teacher Botany), Category No. 449/2010) examination conducted by Kerala PSC (Public Service Commission) on 13/04/2002 (Q. Code 40/2012) for the appointment of HSST Botany in Government Higher Secondary Schools of Kerala under the Directorate of Higher Secondary Education, Trivandrum, Govt. of Kerala. Questions are in MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions) format.

Part – 4 (Questions 76 – 100)

76.  Fossil fuels are:

a.       Renewable resources
b.      Non-renewable resource
c.       Inexhaustible resources
d.      Non-renewable and exhaustible resource

Ans. (d). Non-renewable and exhaustible resource

77.  Parthenocarpy is induced by the hormone:

a.      BAP
b.      GA
c.       IAA
d.      ABA

Question removed due to confusions in the options

Parthenocarpy: formation of fruit without fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruits are devoid of seeds, Eg. Banana

Gibberellin can induce the formation of seedless fruits but not through parthenocarpy but through stenospermocarpy

Stenospermocarpy: a biological phenomenon which induces seedless fruit formation in some fruits especially grapes. In stenospermocarpic fruits, normal pollination and fertilization is essential to ensure fruit formation. But during the course of fruit development spontaneous embryo abortion takes places and it leads to near seedless condition.  

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Biotechnology Eligibility Test Preparation

DBT BET JRF Exam 2012-13 Previous Year Question Paper With Answer Key and Explanations Part 2

What are microsatellites?

DNA samples from specimens of Littorina plena amplified using PCR with primers targeting a variable simple sequence repeat (SSR, a.k.a. microsatellite) locus, run on a 5% polyacrylamide gel, visualized by silver staining (source wikipedia)

Biotechnology Eligibility Test (BET) for DBT JRF Award (2012-13)
Previous Year Question Papers with Answer Key, Explanations & References
Government of India, Ministry of Science & Technology
Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi

PART: A Set 2 (Questions 26 – 50)

26.  Which one of the following is the natural host for pseudo-rabies virus?

a.      Dog
b.      Man
c.       Swine
d.      Horse

Ans. (c). Swine

Pseudorabies (Aujeszky’s disease) is a viral disease of swine caused by Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV1) belongs to the family Herpesviridae. Other species such as sheep, cattle, and human are also susceptible to SuHV1. This disease is nothing to do with rabies virus. The notorious Rabies virus belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae which cause rabies in human and animals.

27.  Which one of the following is the causative agent of fowl cholera?

a.       V. cholera
b.       P. multocida
c.       E. coli
d.       S. pullorum

Ans. (b). P. multicida

Fowl cholera or avian cholera is caused by Pasteurella multocida. Fowl cholera is considered as Zoonoses

Zoonoses: an infectious disease of animals that can be transferred to human, Example: Rabies

S. pullorum is a poultry adapted species of Salmonella

28.  The wavelengths of light that penetrate the least into the ocean are

a.       Red and violet
b.      Red and yellow
c.       Blue and brown
d.      Green and blue

Ans. (b). Red and Yellow

Yellow, orange and red waves have the least energy in the visible spectrum, thus they cannot penetrated deep into the sea. This is the reason why most of the deep sea animals (fishes) are red in colour. In the deep sea, due to absence of enough light the red colour appears as black so that these animals can be escaped from their predators.

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Botany lecture notes

MG University PhD Botany Course Work Exam: Course II – Biological Techniques Dec 2015 Question Paper

Botany PhD course Work

Ph.D Programme in Botany
Botany Ph.D Course Work Examination December 2015
Paper/Course – II – Biological Techniques
Time: Three Hours                                                                     Maximum: 80 Marks

Part A
Answer any twelve of the following
Each question carries 5 marks

1.    Describe the physiological and biochemical changes during fruit ripening

2.    Give a diagrammatic representation of photosynthetic electron transport chain.

3.     Briefly describe: (a). Isoelectric focusing; and (b). Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

4.     What is the working principle of GCMS? Specify the applications.

5.     Describe the technique used for the separation and identification of pigments.

6.     Explain the principles of centrifugation. Describe briefly the application of ultracentrifugation.

7.     Explain the role of chemicals used in the isolation of nucleic acids

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