MAHATMA GANDHI UNIVERSITY
Ph.D Programme in Botany
Botany Ph.D Course Work Examination December 2015
Paper/Course – II – Biological Techniques
Time: Three Hours Maximum: 80 Marks
Answer any twelve of the following
Each question carries 5 marks
1. Describe the physiological and biochemical changes during fruit ripening
2. Give a diagrammatic representation of photosynthetic electron transport chain.
3. Briefly describe: (a). Isoelectric focusing; and (b). Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.
4. What is the working principle of GCMS? Specify the applications.
5. Describe the technique used for the separation and identification of pigments.
6. Explain the principles of centrifugation. Describe briefly the application of ultracentrifugation.
7. Explain the role of chemicals used in the isolation of nucleic acids
8. Briefly describe the preparation of specimen by microtome techniques for plant anatomical studies.
9. What are molecular markers? Briefly describe the major types.
10. How can you evaluate the level and diversity of mycorrhizas associated with plant roots?
11. What is phytoremediation? Describe the techniques adopted.
12. Briefly describe the sampling techniques adopted for soil analysis
13. Describe the immunological tests based on agglutination and precipitation reactions.
14. Give a brief description on the maintenance of animal cells in culture.
15. Describe the methods used for protoplast isolation and culture
16. Describe the sterilization techniques used in plant tissue cultures.
(12 X 5 = 60 marks)
Answer any two of the following
Each question carries 10 marks
17. Describe the methods used for the isolation, purification and estimation of alkaloids from plant samples.
18. Briefly describe the various types of microscopes with their working principles and applications.
19. Explain the role of GIS and remote sensing in plant diversity analysis.
20. Discuss the different methods used for gene transfer in plants. Mention the role of reporter genes. Briefly describe the three tier system of regulation of GM research in India.
(2 X 10 = 20 marks)
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