Human Physiology Lecture Notes

Difference between A-Band and I-Band of Sarcomere – Comparison Tab


A-band vs I-band

A-Band vs I-Band
Difference between A-Band and I-Band of a Sarcomere

The basic structural and functional unit of a striated muscle is called the Sarcomere. The sarcomere is the repeating units of a striated muscle occur between two Z-lines. This gives the striated appearance of the skeletal or cardiac muscles. The sarcomere composed of myofibrils, an array elongated contractile protein threads found in striated muscle cells. There are two types of myofibrils in the sarcomere called thin filaments and thick filaments. The thin filaments are made of protein called Actin and the thick filaments are made of proteins called Myosin. The actin and myosin filaments in a sarcomere are arranged in a specific manner so that their overlapping and interlocking patterns produce distinct bands when they are observed under a microscope. These bands are technically called as A-bands (Anisotropic) and I-Bands (Isotropic). The present post discusses the Difference between A-bands and I-bands with a comparison table.

Sarcomere diagram

Structure of Sarcomere (Source: Wikipedia)

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Human Physiology Lecture Notes

Difference between Cilia and Microvilli – Comparison Table


cilia vs microvilli

Cilia vs Microvilli
Difference between Cilia and Microvilli

Cilia and microvilli are special types of protuberances from the surface some eukaryotic cells with specific functions such as movement, sensory functions or facilitating absorption.

Cilia (singular – Cilium) are narrow and long hair like protuberances from the apical surface of some epithelial cells. Cilia are made up of microtubules with a length of 5 to 10 µm and 0.2 µm in diameter.

Microvilli (singular – Microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for absorption. Numerous microvilli together act as a structure called ‘Brush Borders’. The brush borders are abundantly present on the epithelial cells of the small intestine where they facilitate the absorption.

what if cilia and microvilli

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Difference between Photoperiodism and Vernalization in Plants


Photoperidism vs Vernalization

Photoperiodism vs Vernalization
Similarities and Differences between Photoperiodism and Vernalization in Plants

The Photoperiodism is defined as the developmental responses of plants to the relative lengths of light and dark periods. It is a physiological reaction of plants to the length of day or night time. Plants sense the seasons by sensing the variations in photoperiods (length of day and night times in a day). The most important response of photoperiodism in plants is the induction of flowering. The Vernalization is a process of induction of flowering in plants by exposing them to prolonged cold temperature. The present post discusses the Similarities and Differences between Photoperiodism and Vernalization in Plants with a Comparison Table.

Similarities between Photoperiodism and Vernalization

Ø  Both Photoperiodism and Vernalization are physiological process in plants.

Ø  Both influence the flowering in plants.

Ø  Both processes are mediated through plant hormones.

Ø  Both can occur naturally or artificially.

Ø  Both have agricultural applications.

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Zoology lecture notes and study materials

Similarities and Difference between Simple and Compound Epithelial Tissue


Simple vs Compound Epithelial Tissue

Simple Epithelium vs Compound Epithelium
(Similarities and Difference between Simple and Compound Epithelial Tissues)

Epithelial tissue is a tissue system in animals that forms the outer layer of body surfaces, the linings of the alimentary canal and the walls of hollow structures. It covers the internal or external surfaces of the body. In the previous post, we have discussed the Structure, Classification and Functions of Epithelial Tissues. Based on the number of cell-layers, the epithelial tissues are classified into Simple Epithelial Tissue and Compound (Stratified) Epithelial Tissue. The present post discusses the Similarities and Differences between Simple and Compound Epithelial Tissues in animals.

classification of epithelial cells

Classification of Epithelial Tissue

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Difference between the Physiological Response of Auxins and Gibberellins in Plants


Compare Effect Auxin Gibberellin

Physiological Effects of Auxins vs Gibberellins
(Difference between the Physiological Effects of Auxins and Gibberellins in Plants)

Auxins and Gibberellins are two major classes of plant hormones. Both hormones significantly influence the growth and various developmental processes in plants such as organogenesis, root initiation, sex expression, flowering etc. The physiological responses of Auxins and Gibberellins show many differences. The present post discusses the difference between the physiological effects of Auxins and Gibberellins in plants with a comparison table.

Difference between the Effects of Auxins and Gibberellins

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