Difference between Micronutrients and Macronutrients – Comparison Table

Micronutrients vs macronutrients

Micronutrients vs Macronutrients
(Difference between Micronutrients and Macronutrients in Plants)

Nutrients are chemical substances required for the proper growth and functioning of all living organisms including plants and animals. The nutrients are also called essential elements because, in the absence of these chemicals, plants and animals cannot complete their life cycle. Important nutrients required by the plants for their proper growth are C, H, O, N, P, K, Cs, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, B, Cl and Ni. Except for C, H and O, all other nutrients are absorbed from soil as inorganic ions by the root cells.

Learn more: Mineral Absorption in Plants

In Plants, the nutrients are classified into two categories based on how much quantity they are required by the cells. They are (1) Micronutrients and (2) Macronutrients.

Micronutrients: These nutrients are required in very less amount when compared to macronutrients. Micronutrients of plants are Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, B, Cl and Ni.

Macronutrients: These nutrients are required in relatively large amounts for the proper functions of the cells. C, H, O, N, P, K, Cs, S and Mg are the macronutrients of plants. Among these, C, H, and O are NOT absorbed from the soil by root. N, P and K are called Primary nutrients. Ca, S and Mg are called Secondary nutrients.

Continue reading

Mechanism of Mineral Absorption in Plants (Plant Physiology Short Notes)

Passive and Active Mineral Absorption

Mineral Absorption in Plants
(The Mechanism of Active and Passive Absorption of Minerals in Plants)

Plants absorb minerals as ions

Plants absorb minerals from the soil in the form of inorganic ions. Earlier it was thought that the absorption of minerals takes place in plants along with the absorption of water. In fact, the process of mineral absorption and water absorption are two separate processes. In order to absorb any minerals from the soil, it should be dissolved in the water.

Plants absorb most of the minerals through the roots. The large surface area of roots and its ability to absorb minerals from the soil even in minor concentration makes the roots more efficient in mineral absorption than any other organs. In roots, the mineral absorption usually takes place through the meristematic region of the root tip.

Minerals can be absorbed by both Passive and Active Methods

There are two types of mineral absorptions based on the involvement of metabolic energy. They are (1) Passive minerals absorption (2) Active minerals absorption.

Continue reading

Difference between Transpiration and Guttation – A Comparison Table

Transpiration vs Guttation

Transpiration vs Guttation (A Comparison Table)
(Similarities and Differences between Transpiration and Guttation Process)

Transpiration and Guttation are the two physiological events in plants by which the plants release water to the external atmosphere.

Transpiration: Transpiration is the excessive loss of water from the aerial portion of plants as water vapours. Even though the transpiration results in excessive loss of water, it helps to maintain the continuous absorption water from the soil through a force called the ‘Transpiration Pull’. Thus, the transpiration is considered as a ‘Necessary Evil’ in plants.

Guttation: Guttation is the process of secretion of liquid water through the leaf tips in some plants. These plants possess a specialized structure at their leaf tip and margins called Hydathodes. The guttation usually occurs in the morning time when the atmosphere humidity will be high and the rate of transpiration will be low.

Similarities between Transpiration and Guttation

Ø  Both transpiration and guttation primarily occurs though leaf.

Ø  In both cases, the water is lost through specialized pores.

Ø  Both transpiration and guttation cause permanent water loss from the plant.

Difference between Transpiration and Guttation

Continue reading

Human Physiology Lecture Notes

Difference between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems

difference between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system

Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
(Similarities and Differences between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems)

The involuntary or reflex functions in the body are controlled by a part of peripheral nervous system called Autonomous Nervous System (ANS). ANS regulate the functions of internal organs (visceral functions) particularly the functions of heart, stomach and intestine.  The Autonomic Nervous System composed of two components:

            (1). Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)

           (2). Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS or PSNS)

Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS): They are the part of ANS which originate from the spinal cord of the thoracic and lumbar region. They control the ‘fight-or-flight’ response or the ‘sympatho-adrenal response’ in the body. SNS prime the body for acting in threatening situations for survival. The sympathetic nervous system acts in the body as complementary to the action of Parasympathetic Nervous System.

Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS or PSNS): Part of ANS originates from the spinal cord and medulla which control the ‘rest-and-digest’ or ‘feed-and-breed’ activities in the body. They act in the body as complementary to the action of SNS.

The present post describes the similarities and differences between Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System

Similarities between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System

Ø  Both are the part of ANS.

Ø  Both originate from the spinal cord.

Ø  Both have huge influence on physiological process of the body such as respiration, circulation, digestion, urination and reproduction.

Ø  Both have role in maintaining the homoeostasis of the body.

Ø  Both composed of pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic neurons.

Difference between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System

Continue reading

Human Physiology Lecture Notes

Artery vs Vein: Similarities and Differences (A Comparison Table)

difference between artery and vein

Arteries vs Veins
Similarities and Differences between Arteries and Veins

The circulatory system in an organism ensures the transport of oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide and hormone throughout the body. The blood circulatory system in an animal is facilitated by the heart (the blood pumping organ) and blood vessels (closed pipelines which carry out the circulation of blood throughout the body). There are three types of blood vessels in our body. They are:

(1).    Arteries
(2).    Veins
(3).    Capillaries

(1). Artery: They are blood vessels which originated from the heart and carry blood away from the heart. Arteries usually carry oxygenated blood except for pulmonary and umbilical arteries that carries deoxygenated blood.

(2). Vein: They are blood vessels which carry blood to the heart from various organs of the body. Veins usually carry deoxygenated blood except for pulmonary and umbilical vein that carries oxygenated blood.

(3). Capillaries: They are minutes blood vessels of one cell layer thickness and they facilitate the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and hormones in the blood to individuals cells of different organs. Arteries and veins are interconnected through capillaries and thus the blood circulation forms a closed system in majority of animals.

The current post describes the similarities and differences between Arteries and Veins with a comparison table.

Similarities between Arteries and Veins

Ø  Both are blood vessels.

Ø  Both transport blood.

Ø  Blood transport is unidirectional in both arteries and vein.

Ø  Arteries and veins composed of layers of cells.

Ø  Both arteries and veins composed of three layers of cells namely Tunica externa (external layer), tunica media (middle layer) and tunica interna (internal layer).

Ø  Both arteries and veins are covered by muscular tissues which assist in the contraction or expansion of blood vessels.

Ø  Both undergo vasoconstriction and vasodilation to adjust the blood pressure according to the action of hormones and neurotransmitters.

Ø  Both arteries and veins show anastomosis.

Difference between Arteries and Veins

Continue reading