Molecular Biology Tutorials

Philadelphia Chromosome and Oncogenic BCR ABL Gene Translocation in CML


Philadelphia Translocation

Philadelphia Chromosome (PH)
(Philadelphia Translocation, PH and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia – CML)

Translocation is a Structural Aberration of Chromosome

Translocation is a type of structural aberration of the chromosome where a segment of chromosome gets translocated to another chromosome. There may be two types of translocation based on the nature of the exchange. They are:

(1). Homologous Translocation

(2). Heterologous Translocation

In homologous translocation, the exchange of chromosomal segments occurs between the homologous chromosomes. In heterologous translocation, the chromosomal segments are exchanged between non-homologous chromosomes. The heterologous translocation in most of the cases will be a reciprocal translocation (exchange of segments between chromosomes).

Translocation causes ‘Position Effect’

The translocation of chromosomes leads to a phenomenon in molecular genetics called the ‘Position Effect’. The position effect is the change in the expression pattern of a gene due to its current position in the chromosome. For example, a normally active gene may be converted to an inactive gene when it is translocated into a new position or vice versa.

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Molecular Biology Tutorials

DNA Repair Mechanisms Part 2: Photoreactivation Repair of DNA PPT


Cell and Cytology PPT


Photoreactivation Repair of DNA PPT
(The Mechanism Light Dependent Repair of DNA – Photoreactivation PPT)

What is photoreactivation? Mechanism of pyrimidine dimer formation by UV, Discovery of Photoreactivation, Photolyase enzyme, Mechanisms of Phoreactivation

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Molecular Biology Tutorials

DNA Repair Mechanisms Part 4: Nucleotide Excision Repair of DNA PPT


Cell and Cytology PPT

Nucleotide Excision Repair of DNA PPT
(The Mechanism of Nucleotide Excision Repair – NER of DNA PPT)

What is Nucleotide Excision Repair? NER in Prokaryotes Vs Eukaryotes: an overview, Enzymes involved in Prokaryotic NER, Molecular Mechanism of NER

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Learn more: Lecture Note in Nucleotide Excision Repair

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Molecular Biology Tutorials

Karyotype and Idiogram PPT


Cell and Cytology PPT

Karyotype and Idiogram PPT
(Karyotype, Idiogram and its Significance PPT)

What is Karyotype? What is Karyotyping? How Human Karyotype is Prepared? What type of cell samples are used for karyotyping? What is Idiogram? What are the significance of Karyotype Analysis? What are the applications of Clinical Karyotyping? Modern methods in Karyotyping.

Learn more: Lecture Note in Karyotype and Idiogram

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