Prokaryotic DNA vs Eukaryotic DNA (Similarities and Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA)
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DNA is the genetic material in both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. The chemical composition and structural features of DNA in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes are similar. The major differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA were those related to its genetic content and organization. The present post describes the similarities and differences between the DNA of prokaryotes and eukaryotes with a comparison table.
Similarities between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA
Ø The DNA is double stranded and helical in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Ø The DNA composed of purine (A and G) and pyrimidines (T and C) in both groups.
Ø Both groups follow the Chargaff’s rule.
Ø The strands are antiparallel in both groups.
Ø The three dimensional organizations of DNA such as helix pitch, number of base pairs per turn, distance between two bases, distance between two strands, formation of major groves and minor groves etc. are similar in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Ø The replication of DNA is more or less similar in both groups.
Ø In both groups extra chromosomal genetic materials are present (plasmids in prokaryotes and mtDNA and cpDNA in eukaryoes).
Prokaryotic Chromosome vs Eukaryotic Chromosome (Similarities and Differences between the Chromosomes of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes)
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are the two major domains of living organisms. This classification is on the basis of the features of their cellular features primarily the nature of membrane bounded organelles and organization of the genetic materials. Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes contain the genetic materials which are organized into specialized structures called Chromosomes. Even though the term chromosome is accurate only for eukaryotes, the genetic materials of prokaryotes are also described as prokaryotic chromosome. The prokaryotic chromosome is considerably different from that of eukaryotes. The present post describes the Similarities and Differences between the Prokaryotic Chromosome and Eukaryotic Chromosome with the help of a Comparison Table.
Similarities between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Chromosomes
Ø The chromosome of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes contains the genetic material DNA.
Ø The chemical composition and structural organization of DNA is similar in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Ø In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the expression of genetic material is facilitated by transcription and translation.
Ø In both groups, the negatively charged DNA interacts with some positively charged proteins to nullify their charges.
Ø The genetic material contains both coding and noncoding sequences.