Biotechnology Lecture Notes

Industrial Fermentation Process (Batch, Fed-batch and Continuous Fermentation)


types of fermentation process

Fermentation Technology
(Types of Industrial Fermentation Processes)

Fermentation: An art from the past, a skill for the future…
Brain McNeil

What is fermentation?

Ø  Fermentation is a metabolic process which converts carbohydrates to alcohols, organic acids or gases by the activity of enzymes of microbial origin.

Ø   Microbes involved in fermentation process: Bacteria and Fungi.

Ø  The process of anaerobic respiration in the muscle cells of animals during exercise which produce lactic acid is also a type of fermentation.

Ø  The technique of fermentation was very ancient in origin.

Ø  Egyptians and Sumerians had the knowledge of the technique of converting starchy grains to alcoholics.

Ø  For a microbiologist, the word ‘fermentation’ means many processes such as:

$   A method of mass cultivation of microbes under aerobic or anaerobic conditions.

$   Any biological process occurs in the absence of oxygen.

$   Spoilage of food by microbial activity.

$   Production of alcoholic beverages, organic acids, antibiotics or biopolymers

$   Partial oxidation of carbohydrates

What is industrial fermentation?

Ø  The intentional use of fermentation technology for the large scale production of microbial biomass or metabolites is called industrial fermentation.

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Lecture notes in Microbiology

MCQ on History of Microbiology (MCQ 05) with Answer Key


mcq on history of microbiology

MICROBIOLOGY MCQ-05
(Biology / Life Sciences MCQ: Multiple Choice Questions in Microbiology)

MCQ on Scientists & Discoveries in Microbiology Part 2
(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for NEET, AIPMT, M.Sc. and Medical Entrance Examination)


1. Who discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

a.       Koch
b.      Jenner
c.       Pasteur
d.      Virchow

2. Mycobacterium lepree was discovered by:

a.       Pasteur
b.      Jenner
c.       Koch
d.      Hansen

3. Antibodies were discovered by:

a.       Edelman
b.      Porter
c.       Edelman and Porter
d.      Edelman and Hess

4. Streptococcus pneumonia was discovered by:

a.       Pasteur
b.      Jenner
c.       Koch
d.      Hansen

5. Who discovered Bacillus anthacis?

a.       Koch
b.      Pasteur
c.       Jenner
d.      Hansen

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Lecture notes in Microbiology

MCQ on Scientists and Discoveries in Microbiology with Answer Key (MCQ 04)


Scientists in Microbiology MCQ

MICROBIOLOGY MCQ-04
(Biology / Life Sciences MCQ: Multiple Choice Questions in Microbiology)

MCQ on Scientists & Discoveries in Microbiology Part 1
(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for NEET, AIPMT, M.Sc. and Medical Entrance Examination)


1. Scientist who demonstrated that open tubes of broth remained free of microbes when air was free of dust:

a.       Tyndal
b.      Pasteur
c.       Petri
d.      Francesco Redi

2. Who discovered bacterial transformation?

a.       Jenner
b.      Griffith
c.       Messelson
d.      Tautum

3. Who is known as the father of microbiology?

a.       Rasteur
b.      Koch
c.       Leewenhoek
d.      Robert Hook

4. Who is known as the father of medical microbiology?

a.       Koch
b.      Pasteur
c.       Jenner
d.      Tautum

5. Antiseptic properties were first described by:

a.       Jenner
b.      Pasteur
c.       Lister
d.      Beijernic

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Lecture notes in Microbiology

MCQ on Basics of Microbiology with Answer Key and Explanations (Microbiology MCQ03)


microbiology quizzes on basics

MICROBIOLOGY MCQ-03
(Biology / Life Sciences MCQ: Multiple Choice Questions in Microbiology)

MCQ on Basics of Microbiology Part – 1
(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for NEET, AIPMT, M.Sc. and Medical Entrance Examination)

(1). Virulence of a microorganism can be best described as:

a.       The ability to penetrate into the host tissue
b.      The ability to colonize in the host
c.       The ability to produce a pathological symptom
d.      The ability to utilize the machinery of the host
e.       All of the above

(2). “The feeling of general discomfort” is called as:

a.       Arthritis
b.      Symptom
c.       Malaise
d.      Pain

(3). The utilization of elemental carbon by microbes during bio-geochemical cycle is called:

a.       Dissimilation
b.      Immobilization
c.       Mineralization
d.      Neutralization

(4). The first antibody to contact invading microorganism is:

a.       IgG
b.      IgA
c.       IgM
d.      IgD

(5). Which of the following vector(s) was extensively used in human genome project?

a.       Plasmid vector
b.      Yeast Artificial chromosome
c.       Cosmid vector
d.      (b) and (c)

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Lecture notes in Microbiology

Microbiology MCQ 02 Practice Questions Part 2 with Answer Key and Explanations


microbiology quizzes with answer key

MICROBIOLOGY MCQ-02
(Biology / Life Sciences MCQ: Multiple Choice Questions in Microbiology)

Quizzes on Microbiology: Practice Test Part 2
(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for CSIR JRF/NET Life Science Examination, ICMR JRF Exam, DBT BET JRF Exam, GATE BT and XL Exam, ICAR JRF NE Exam, PG Entrance Exam, JAM Exam, GS Biology Exam and Medical Entrance Exam)

1. Glucans, Mannans and Chitin are found to be present in the cell wall of ______

a.       Plants
b.      Eubacteria
c.       Fungi
d.      Actinomycetes

2.  _____ is a synthetic Antimicrobial drug against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

a.       Penicillin
b.      Tetracycline
c.       Erythromycin
d.      Isoniazid

3. Who isolated Streptococcus pneumonia for the first time?

a.       Robert Koch
b.      Edward Jenner
c.       Antony von Leewenhock
d.      Louis Pasteur

4. Botulinum toxin is a ________.

a.       Protein
b.      Lipid
c.       Sugar
d.      Nucleic acid

5. Tear drops are rich in ___________.

a.       Amylase
b.      Phosphatase
c.       Lysozyme
d.      Protease

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