Physiological Effects of Auxins vs Gibberellins (Difference between the Physiological Effects of Auxins and Gibberellins in Plants)
Auxins and Gibberellins are two major classes of plant hormones. Both hormones significantly influence the growth and various developmental processes in plants such as organogenesis, root initiation, sex expression, flowering etc. The physiological responses of Auxins and Gibberellins show many differences. The present post discusses the difference between the physiological effects of Auxins and Gibberellins in plants with a comparison table.
Difference between the Effects of Auxins and Gibberellins
Structure and Functions of Immunoglobulins (Antibodies) The Organization of Heavy and Light Chains in an Immunoglobulin (Ig)
In the previous post, we have discussed the introductory features of antibodies. There we have also discussed the reason for calling Antibodies (Ab) as Immunoglobulins (Ig). In this lesson, we will see the detailed molecular structure and organization of immunoglobulins (antibodies).
What are Immunoglobulins (Ig)?
As we discussed earlier, the Antibodies or Immunoglobulins are globularproteinspresent in the serum and tissue fluids. They are produced by the plasma cells (B-cells) and are used in theimmune systemof the body to neutralize pathogenic microbes or other toxic foreign components. Antibodies play a very crucial role in the immune system of an organism. Antibodies bind to definite molecules of microbes called antigens with high affinity and specificity. This enables our immune system to detect foreign organisms such as invading pathogens, of its products and initiate the mechanism to eliminate these foreign particles. The production of antibodies by the plasma cells is also stimulated by the antigens.
How Immunoglobulins (Ig) are classified?
The immunoglobulins constitute about 20 – 25% of the total serum proteins. Based on the Physiochemical and Antigenic differences, the immunoglobulins are classified into FIVE categories. These immunoglobulins variants are called as Isotypes. The five isotypes or classes of the immunoglobulins are given below.
Flower vs Vegetative Branch (Difference between Flower and Reproductive Shoot)
The flower is the reproductive structure formed in the plant group Angiosperms or Magnoliophyta, commonly called as the ‘Flowering Plants’. The flower is a ‘modified branch’ or axis developed from a ‘determinate’ apical meristem. The term ‘determinate’ indicates the absence of further growth of the apical meristem after the production of flowers. Even though the flower is a modified shoot, the morphological and anatomical features of a flower and a vegetative branch show many differences. The present post discusses the Difference between a Flower and a Vegetative Branch with a Comparison Table.
Lyophilic Sols vs Lyophobic Sols (Difference between Lyophobic and Lyophilic Sols)
Sols are colloidal systems in which a solid is dispersed in a liquid. There are two types of sols – (1) Lyophobic Sols and (2). Lyophilic Sols
(1). Lyophilic sols: They are solvent loving sols. In lyophilic sols, the dispersed phase shows a positive affinity for the dispersion medium (solvent). The high affinity of dispersed particles with the dispersed medium is due to the formation of a large number of hydrogen bonds.
(2). Lyophobic sols: They are solvent hating sols. In lyophobic sols, the dispersed phase does not have any attraction for the dispersion medium.
Antibodies vs Immunoglobulins (Why are Antibodies called as Immunoglobulins?)
All Antibodies are Immunoglobulins but all Immunoglobulins are NOT Antibodies.
Antibodies are the antigen binding proteins found on the B-cell membrane and secreted by the plasma cells of the immune system. Antibodies are commonly called as ‘IMMUNOGLOBULINS’. In the present post we will see, what is the exact difference between an Immunoglobulin and an Antibody, and also why antibodies are called immunoglobulins?
What are Antibodies?
Ø Antibodies are globular proteins (globulins) present in the serum and tissue fluids.
Ø They form one of the major components of the blood plasma proteins.
Ø In the blood, three types of globulin proteins are present and they are named as alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) globulins.
Ø All antibodies are gamma (γ) globulins.
Ø Antibodies confer protection against microbial pathogens and, they act as the first line defense against infections.
Ø Antibodies are highly specific and they specifically bind to foreign particles called antigens.
Ø The antibodies can protect us from the invading microbes in four different ways:
1. They can prevent the attachment of microbes to the mucosal surface of the host.
2. They reduce the virulence of the pathogen by neutralizing the toxins and viruses.
3. They facilitate phagocytosis by opsonization of microbes.