Difference between B-Cells and T-Cells – Comparison Table


B Lymphocytes vs T Lymphocytes

B-Cells vs T-Cells
(Similarities and Differences between B-Lymphocytes and T-Lymphocytes)

Lymphocytes are the key cells of the immune system and they are responsible for the adaptive immune response of an organism. They are also responsible many of the immunological characteristics such as specificity, diversity, memory and self/non-self recognition. Lymphocytes constitute about 20 – 40% of the body’s White blood cells and 99% of the cells of the lymph. Lymphocytes are broadly classified into THREE populations based on their function, lifespan, cell surface components and most importantly their place of maturation. They are B-Lymphocytes (B-Cells), T-Lymphocytes (T-Cells) and Natural Killer Cells (NK Cells).

B-Lymphocytes (B-Cells): They mature in the bone marrow or bursa (in birds). B-cells possess membrane bound immunoglobulins which acts as the receptors for the antigens. They are involved in the humoral (antibody mediated) immune responses.

Learn more: Cell Mediated vs Humoral Immunity

T-Lymphocytes (T-Cells): They mature in the thymus, hence the name. T-cells possess receptors for antigens on their surface but it is structurally different from immunoglobulins. They are involved in Cell-mediated immune responses.

The present post discusses the Similarities and Differences between B-Lymphocytes (B-Cells) and T-Lymphocytes (T-Cells) with a Comparison Table.

Continue reading

Difference between Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity – Comparison Table


Compare Adaptive and Innate Immunity

Innate Immunity vs Adaptive Immunity
Differences between Innate (Native) Immunity and Adaptive (Acquired) Immunity

The main function of immune system in our body is to prevent or resist infections by pathogenic microorganisms. The immune system in an organism is initiated with the recognition of the invading microorganism. The immunity against the invading microbes shown by our body can be grouped into two broad categories – (1) Innate Immunity and (2) Adaptive Immunity. These two immune systems act together to defend the body against infections and diseases.

(1). Innate Immunity: It is also called the Native Immunity. Innate immunity is the nonspecific resistance that an individual possesses by birth. This immune system operates through physical barriers such as skin, chemical in the blood and by immune cells. The innate immunity is due to the genetic makeup of the organism and it does not require the prior contact with microorganisms. The innate immunity acts as the very first level of defense system in our body.

(2). Adaptive Immunity: It is also called as Acquired Immunity or Antigen Specific Immunity. It is the specific resistance acquired by an individual during its life and it is mediated by B- and T- lymphocytes after exposure to specific antigen. The adaptive immune system is characterized by the formation of antibodies (immunoglobulins) and immunological memory.

Continue reading

Difference between Active Immunity and Passive Immunity – Comparison Table


Compare active and passive immunity

Active Immunity vs Passive Immunity
(Similarities and Differences between Active and Passive Immunity)

The acquired immunity is the immunity acquired by an organism during its life. The acquired immunity against a particular microbe may be induced by the host’s response to the microbe or by the transfer of antibodies or lymphocytes specific for the microbes. Based on the above criteria, the acquired immunity is categorized into two types – (1) Active Immunity and (2) Passive Immunity.

Active Immunity: The active immunity is the direct response of your body against the pathogens. It is induced by the exposure to a foreign antigen such as the antigen of microbes. It is an adaptive response of the individual after contact with specific pathogen or antigen.

what is active immunity

Continue reading

Difference between Cell-mediated and Humoral Immunity (Comparison Table)


Compare Cell-mediated & humoral

Cell-mediated vs Humoral Immunity
(Similarities and Differences between Cell-Mediated and Humoral Immunity)

The immunity induced in an organism by the exposure of a foreign antigen is called Active Immunity. The active immunity is mediated through two distinct mechanisms, and they are named as (1) Cell-mediated immunity and (2) Humoral immunity. These two immune pathways show considerable differences in their components, their targets, and the method of killing of pathogens.

Cell-mediated immunity: The cell-mediated immunity is facilitated by the activated TH cells (T-Helper cells) and Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs). Cytokines secreted by the TH cells activate the phagocytic cells. These activated phagocytic cells then phagocytosis and kill the microbes. The cell-mediated immunity is particularly important against the bacterial and protozoan pathogens.

Humoral Immunity (antibody-mediated immunity): The Humoral immunity is mediated through antibodies. Antibodies are produced by the B cells. These antibodies bound to specific microbial antigens. Binding of antibodies to antigens neutralize the microbes and target them for elimination by various effector mechanisms. The humoral immunity is the major defense mechanism against the extracellular microbes trying to invade the host systems.

Continue reading