Human Physiology Lecture Notes

Difference between Rod Cells and Cone Cells (Comparison Table)


Rod cells vs cone cells

Rod cells vs Cone Cells
Similarities and Differences between Rod Cells and Cone Cells

Rod cells and Cone cells are the two types of photoreceptor cells found in the retina of eyes. These cells are capable of absorbing light and converting the light into signals that can trigger a change in the membrane potential, which results in visual phototransduction. In other words, these cells assist in vision in presence of light.

Rod cells: A type of photoreceptor cells in the eye found concentrated at the outer edges of the retina. Rod cells are responsible for vision in low light conditions.

Cone cells: The second type of photoreceptor cell in the eye concentrated in the fovea of the retina. Cone cells are responsible for the vision in bright light and colour vision.

rod vs cone cells

image source: wikipedia

The present post explains the similarities and differences between Rod cells and Cone cells with a comparison table.

Similarities between Rods and Cones

Ø  Both rods and cones are photoreceptor cells of the eye.

Ø  Both can absorb photon (light)

Ø  Both cells possess photoreceptor proteins to absorb the photons (light).

Ø  Both are modified nerve cells.

Continue reading

Human Physiology Lecture Notes

Difference between Bone and Cartilage – Comparison Table


bone vs cartilage

Bone vs Cartilage
(Similarities and Differences between Bone and Cartilage)

Bone and cartilage are connective tissues which form the skeletal system in the body. Bones are hard and tough which gives the structural framework of the skeleton in the body. Cartilages are soft and flexible components present in ear, nose and joints. Cartilage acts as shock absorbers between two bones and they prevent the rubbing between them the bones. Even though the bones and cartilages are connective tissues and they are the components of the skeletal framework, both show considerable differences in their formation, organization and functions. The present post discusses about the Similarities and Differences between Bone and Cartilage with a Comparison Table.

Similarities between Bone and Cartilage

Ø  Both bone and cartilage are connective tissues.

Ø  Both are the components of the skeletal system.

Ø  Both provide shape to body parts.

Ø  Both provide protection to vital organs.

Ø  Both are mesodermal in origin.

Ø  Both composed of specialized cells embedded in the matrix of fibrous proteins.

Haversian canal Structure

image source: wikipedia

Continue reading

Human Physiology Lecture Notes

Difference between Tendons and Ligaments: Comparison Table


Tendon vs Ligament

Tendons vs Ligaments
(Similarities and Differences between Tendons and Ligaments)

Tendons and Ligaments are connective tissues* belong to the category of ‘Dense Granular Connective Tissues’. They are the essential component for the proper functioning of the skeletal and muscular system.

Tendons: Tendons are cord-like, strong, inelastic structures that join skeletal muscles to bones.

Ligaments: Ligaments are elastic structures which connect bones to bones in joints.

what is Tendon

image source: wikipedia

Similarities between Tendons and Ligaments

Ø  Both tendons and ligaments are connective tissues.

Ø  Both are dense-granular connective tissues.

Ø  Both composed of living cells.

Ø  Both contain plenty of collagens.

Continue reading

Human Physiology Lecture Notes

Difference between Osteoblast and Osteoclast: Comparison Table


Compare Osteoblast and Osteoclast

Osteoblast vs Osteoclast
(Similarities and Differences between Osteoblast and Osteoclast)

Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts are the two types of bone cells which constitute the bone tissue or the osseous tissue. The bone is a metabolically active tissue consisting of several types of cells among which the Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts are the most important ones. Osteoblasts are responsible for the formation of bone whereas the osteoclasts are responsible for the breakdown of the bones. The coordinated actions of these two cells are required for the formation and resorption (breakdown) of bones. This coordinated action between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is known as Bone Remodeling. Bone remodeling also ensures the maintenance of bones and the regulation of mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorous, in the body.

Similarities between Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts

Ø  Both osteoblasts and osteoclasts are bone cells.

Ø  Both are involved in bone remodeling.

Ø  Both are involved in the repair of bones.

Ø  Both are living cells with nucleus.

Ø  Both are metabolically very active cells.

Ø  Both cells are located on the surface of osteon seam.

Ø  Both are connective tissues.

Bone Remodeling

image source: wikipedia

Continue reading

Human Physiology Lecture Notes

Difference between Compact and Spongy Bone: Comparison Table


Compare Compact and Spongy Bone

Compact Bone vs Spongy Bone
(Similarities and Differences between Compact Bone and Spongy Bone)

Bones are the primary structure of vertebrate skeleton system which provides shape to the body and supports the muscles. Apart from this, the bone also produces the blood tissue. Based on the nature of bone-matrix, the skeletal bones are classified into two categories – (1) Compact bones and (2) Spongy bones.

(1) Compact bone: They are tough and heavy bones made of compactly packed osteons. They form the shaft or diaphysis of long bones.

(2) Spongy bone: They are soft and light bones make up of loosely packed trabeculae. They form the epiphyses (bond ends) of long bones.




Similarities between Compact bone and Spongy bone

@. Both compact bone and spongy bones are structural bones.

@. Both are the components of the skeletal system of an organism.

@. Both provide shape and structure to the organism.

@. Both are osseous tissues.

@. Both support the functioning of muscles.

Compact vs Spongy Bone

image source: wikipedia

Continue reading