Botany lecture notes

Difference between Intercropping and Mixed Cropping: Comparison Table

Intercropping vs Mixed Farming

Mixed Cropping vs Intercropping
(Difference between Mixed Cropping and Intercropping)

Mixed cropping and Intercropping are two methods of diversified farming techniques where more than one types of crops are grown in the same unit area. In mixed cropping or mixed farming, two independent crops are mixed together and grown in an area, whereas the intercropping is a multiple cropping techniques where two or more crops are grown in proximity.  Mixed cropping and intercropping are essentially two separate farming techniques with specific goals. The present post discusses the differences between Mixed cropping and Intercropping with a comparison table.

Continue reading

Botany lecture notes

Difference between Microspores and Megaspores: Comparison Table

microspores vs megaspores

Microspores vs Megaspores
(Similarities and Differences between Microspores and Megaspores)

Microspores and megaspores are sexual spores produced by vascular plants (some Pteridophytes and all Gymnosperms and Angiosperms) for sexual reproduction. Both microspores and megaspores on germination produce the respective gametophytic generations. The gametophytes on maturation produce sex organs and gametes to establish the fertilization and thus to complete the life cycle. The production of different types of spores with different functions and sexuality is called Heterospory. The heterosporous condition was first evolved in Pteridophytes and it is considered as the prerequisite for seed habitat.

Learn more: Heterospory and Seed Habitat

The present post discusses the similarities and differences between microspores and megaspores with a comparison table.

Similarities between Microspores and Megaspores

Ø  Both microspores and megaspores are sexual spores.

Ø  Both are produced by the diploid sporophytic plants.

Ø  Both are haploid spores produced after reduction division of spore mother cells.

Ø  Both spores are produced in specialized structures called sporangium.

Continue reading

Botany lecture notes

Heterospory and Seed Habitat in Pteridophytes (Short Notes)

Significance of Heterospory

Heterospory and Seed Habitat
(Origin of Seeds and Seed Habitat in Vascular Plants from Heterospory)

Heterospory is the production of two or more types of spores

Heterospory is a condition of the production of more than one type (usually two) of spores in a single plant. These two types of spore differ in their formation, structure and most importantly its functions and sexuality. In Pteridophytes, these two spores are called as Microspores and Megaspores.

(1). Microspores:

Microspores are small sized spores produced in large numbers inside the microsporangium. They are male spores which on germination produce male gametophyte.

(2). Megaspores:

Megaspores are comparatively large spores produced in limited numbers (1 to 4) inside the megasporangium. They are female spores which on germination produce the female gametophyte.

Learn more: Difference between Microspores and Megaspores

The production of two types of spores with different sexuality was first evolved in Pteridophytes. Even though, the condition of heterospory is now represented only by eight living species of Pteridophytes, they are Selaginella, Isoetus, Marsilea, Salvinia, Azolla, Pilularia, Regnellidium and Platyzoma.

Continue reading

Botany lecture notes

Nodal Anatomy of Angiosperms: Unilacunar, Trilacunar and Multilacunar Node with Examples

Classification of Nodes in Plants

Nodal Anatomy of Plants with Diagram
(Leaf Gap, Leaf Trace: Unilacunar, Trilacunar and Multilacunar Nodes in Angiosperms)

Anatomy of Nodal and Inter-nodal Region are Different:

The stem of plants is differentiated into nodes and internodes. The anatomical features of the nodal region are quite different from that of the inter-nodal region. This anatomical difference is due to the presence of Vascular Supply to the leaves and branches from the main vascular cylinder of the stem.

Nodal Region of Higher Plants Posses Leaf Gaps and Leaf Traces

Each leaf that originates from the node, of higher plants possesses vascular tissue and these vascular tissues of the leaves are connected to that of the stem. A vascular strand that extends between the vascular cylinder of stem and the base of the leaf is called Leaf Trace or Foliar Trace. Even if the leaf trace possesses both xylem and phloem, the relative amount of xylem will be more in the leaf trace than phloem. Moreover, the proximal portion, (portion near the vascular cylinder of the stem) contains only the xylem. Whereas, the distal end of the leaf trace (near to the leaf base) contains both xylem and phloem. Leaf trace helps to transport water and minerals from the xylem to the leaf lamina for photosynthesis. The circulation of photosynthetic products from the leaf lamina to the phloem of the stem is also facilitated by the phloem strands in the leaf traces.

Continue reading

Botany lecture notes

Anatomical Difference between Dicot (Dorsiventral) Leaf and Monocot (Isobilateral) Leaf – Comparison Table

Difference between Dorsiventral and Isobilateral Leaf

Dicot Leaf vs Monocot Leaf
(Difference between Dorsiventral and Isobilateral Leaf)

Dicot leaves are also called as dorsiventral leaves because they possess distinct dorsal and ventral sides. Monocot leaves are called isobilateral leaves since both the sides of monocot leaves are more or less similar. Dicot and monocot leaves show considerable differences both in their morphological and anatomical characteristics. The present post discusses the Difference between Dicot and Monocot Leaf with a Comparison Table.

dicot and monocot leaf

Difference between Dicot and Monocot Leaf

Continue reading