Biotechnology Lecture Notes

Enzyme and Whole Cells Immobilization PPT


Genetic Engineering PPT

Enzyme Immobilization PPT
(The Techniques and Advantages of Enzyme Immobilization PPT)

What is enzyme immobilization? How whole cells can be immobilized on a support? What are the advantages and disadvantages of immobilization? What are the applications of enzyme immobilization? The Supports and matrix used in enzyme immobilization technique, Different Types or methods of enzyme immobilization: Adsorption, Covalent bonding, Entrapment, Co-polymerization/cross linking and Encapsulation. Advantages and disadvantages of whole cell immobilization, Methods of whole cell immobilization

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questions and answers Biology

IIT JAM Biotechnology (BT) 2017 Original Solved Question Paper with Answer Key (Download PDF)


JAM Biotechnology 2017 Paper PDF

IIT JAM BT 2017 Solved Paper with Key (PDF)

Official / Original Previous Year (Old) Solved Question Paper of IIT / IISc Joint Admission Test for MSc JAM Biotechnology (BT) Examination 2017 with Answer Key and Explanations as PDF. JAM aspirants can download the question paper as single PDF file for your exam preparation.

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Biotechnology Eligibility Test Preparation

DBT BET JRF Exam 2017 Original Solved Question Paper with Answer Key (Download PDF)


DBT JRF 2018 Exam Question Paper

Original (original) Previous Year (old) Solved Question Paper of DBT BET JRF 2017 Examination (Department of Biotechnology- Biotechnology Eligibility Test – Junior Research Fellowship) with Answer Key and Explanations as PDF. DBT BET JRF aspirants can download the question paper as single PDF file for your exam preparation. Please feel free to inform us for any mistakes in the answer key provided.

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Biotechnology Lecture Notes

Advantages and Disadvantages of Animal Cell Culture (Short Lecture Notes)


animal cell culture advantages and limitations

Advantages and Disadvantages of Cell / Tissue Culture

Tissue culture is an aseptic in vitro culture of animal or plant cells in a precisely controlled environmental condition. The term “Tissue Culture” was for the first time coined by Thomas Burrows. Even though the in vitro culture of prokaryotes and both plant and animal cells are possible now, the term ‘Tissue Culture’ generally denotes to Animal Cell / Tissue culture. The term ‘Plant Tissue Culture’ symbolizes the in vitro culture of plant cells.

In cell culture the cells are maintained in an artificial environment consists of a suitable culture vessel containing a culture medium. The medium supplies all the nutrients, growth factors, and required gases for the growth of the cells. Moreover, the physiochemical environment of the culture system is strictly monitored most probably through automated systems. The control of the physiochemical environment in the culture system is one of the most important advantages of cell culture system. However, the tissue culture process is not always profitable and there are a plenty of difficulties in maintaining the cells in in vitro conditions. The present post describes the Advantages and Disadvantages of animal cell or tissue culture techniques.

Advantages of Animal Cell Culture:

Ø  Physio-chemical environment in the culture such as pH, temperature, osmolarity and level of dissolved gases can be precisely controlled in the in vitro system.

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Biotechnology Lecture Notes

Applications of Restriction Endonuclease Enzymes in Biotechnology (Short Notes)


Restriction enzymes in Genetic Engineering

Applications of Restriction Enzymes
(The Significance / Importance and Uses of Restriction Endonucleases in Biotechnology)

Restriction endonucleases (also called as molecular scissors) are a class of nuclease enzymes which cut the DNA strand at precise locations. They are specific endonuclease enzymes in the cells which first recognize the specific sequence (called restriction sites) within the DNA strand and cleave the phosphodiester backbone of the DNA at specific sites. The Nobel Prize in 1978 (in Physiology and Medicine) was shared by Werner Arbor, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Smith for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their applications in molecular genetics. Restriction enzymes are now an inevitable tool for the manipulation of DNA in various recombination studies both in vitro and in vivo. The main applications of restriction enzymes are:

(1). Construction of Restriction Maps

(2). Construction of DNA Fingerprints

(3). Recombinant DNA Technology (rDNA Technology)

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