# Titration Curve of a Weak Acid and its pKa (Titration, Titration Curve, Titration Curve of Acetic Acid and its Significance)

## What is Titration?

Titration is a method to determine the concentration of a dissolved substance (analyte or titrand) in a known volume by reacting it with another substance of known concentration and volume (titrant). The volume of the reactants plays a crucial role in the titration and thus the titration is better called as ‘volumetric analysis’.

There are different types of titrations in which the Acid-Base Titration is the most common one. The acid-base titration is used to determine the amount (concentration) of an acid in a given solution. In an acid-base titration, a known volume of acid (of unknown concentration) is titrated against a solution of strong base (usually NaOH) of known concentration in the presence of an indicator. After the titration, the concentration of the acid in the sample is calculated using the concept N1V1 = N2V2.

Where,

N1 – Normality of the unknown acid

N2 – Normality of the known base

V1 – Volume of unknown acid

V2 – Volume of the known base

### What is Titration Curve?

The titration curve is a graphical representation of a titration in which the volume of titrant is plotted on X-axis (as the independent variable) and the pH of the solution is plotted on the Y-axis (as the dependent variable).

In simple terms, the titration curve is the plot of pH of the analyte (titrand) versus the volume of the titrant added as the titration progresses.

# How to Calculate pH and pKa of a Buffer using Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation?

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is a numerical expression which relates the pH, pKa and Buffer Action of a buffer. A buffer is a solution which can resist the change in pH. Chemically, a buffer is a solution of equimolar concentration of a weak acid (such as acetic acid – CH3COOH) and its conjugate base (such as acetate ion – CH3COO¯). In the previous post, we have discussed the Titration Curve of a weak acid and the Derivation of Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation. The characteristic shape of the titration curve of a weak acid is also described by the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. In this chapter we will discuss the methods to calculate the pH or pKa of a buffer using Henderson-Hasselbalch equation using sample problems.

Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation is given as:

Where,

pH – the negative logarithm of H⁺ ion concentration in the medium.

pKa – the negative logarithm of Ka of the acid (Ka is the dissociation constant)

Proton acceptor – the ionized or deprotonated acid (example – CH3COO¯).

Proton donor – intact (non-ionized) weak acid (example – CH3COOH).

Let’s see some sample problems and solutions.

Problem-1: A mixture of 0.20M acetic acid and 0.30M sodium acetate is given. Calculate the pH of the medium if the pKa of the acetic acid is 4.76.

# Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation How to Derive Henderson Hasselbalch Equation?

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is a simple expression which relates the pH, pKa and the buffer action of a weak acid and its conjugate base. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation also describes the characteristic shape of the titration curve of any weak acid such as acetic acid, phosphoric acid, or any amino acid. The titration curve of a weak acid helps to determine the buffering pH which is exhibited around the pKa of that acid. For example, in the case of acetate buffer, the pKa is 4.76. This is the best buffering pH of acetic acid. Besides, at this pH the acetic acid (CH3COOH) and acetate ions (CH3COO¯) will be at equimolar concentration in the solution. This equimolar solution of a weak acid and its conjugate base will resist the change in pH by donating or taking up the H⁺ ions. (pH is the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration in a medium.The pKa is the negative logarithm of Ka. The Ka is the dissociation constant (similar to the equilibrium constant) for the ionization reaction of an acid.)

In the present post, we will see the derivation of Henderson-Hasselbalch equation from the ionization reaction of a weak acid. We also discuss the significance of Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

# Hydrogen Bond: Formation, Structure and Properties of Hydrogen Bonds in Water

The life was originated and started its evolution in water. Without water, life could not have existed on this planet. The properties of water, both physical and chemical, enabled water as the ‘solvent of life’. The water possesses some unusual physical and chemical properties. These ‘unusual properties’ of water makes water as the solvent of life. The unusual properties of water are due to presence of Hydrogen Bonds in them. The present post describes the method of formation of hydrogen bonds in water its properties.

## How Hydrogen Bond is formed in Water?

Ø  Water is a polar solvent.

Ø  The polarity of a molecule due to uneven of distribution charges in them.

Ø  Uneven charge distribution causes a dipole formation.

Ø  One part (pole) of water molecule is slightly positive.

Ø  The other part (pole) of water molecule is slightly negative.

Ø  This type of difference in the distribution of positive and negative charges in a molecule is due to the huge difference in the electronegativity of the atoms in them.

Ø  Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract bonded pair of electrons towards its nucleus.