biological chemistry

Physical and Chemical Properties of Water and its Biological Significance


biological significance of water

Physical and Chemical Properties of Water and its Biological Significance

Water is the most abundant substance in the living system. Water makes up about 70% or more of the weight of almost all organisms. The life has originated in remote past in the aqueous environment. The properties (both physical and chemical) of water enabled it as the ‘solvent of life’. The water possesses some unusual physical and chemical properties. These ‘unusual properties’ are responsible making water as the ‘solvent of life’. The present post describes the Physical, Chemical and Unusual Properties of Water. We will also discuss the importance or significance of these properties of water in the biological system.

The unusual properties of water are mainly due to three factors:

(A).  The small size of water molecules

(B).  The polarity of water molecules

(C).  The formation of hydrogen bonds between adjacent water molecules

Most important physio-chemical and unusual properties of water can be summarized into the following heads:

(1).  Solvent properties of water

(2).  High heat capacity of water

(3).  High heat of vaporization

(4).  High heat of fusion

(5).  Density and freezing properties

(6).  High cohesion, adhesion and surface tension of water

(7).  Water acts as a reactant

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biological chemistry

How Hydrogen Bond is Formed in Water?


biological significance of hydrogen bonds in water

Hydrogen Bond: Formation, Structure and Properties of Hydrogen Bonds in Water

The life was originated and started its evolution in water. Without water, life could not have existed on this planet. The properties of water, both physical and chemical, enabled water as the ‘solvent of life’. The water possesses some unusual physical and chemical properties. These ‘unusual properties’ of water makes water as the solvent of life. The unusual properties of water are due to presence of Hydrogen Bonds in them. The present post describes the method of formation of hydrogen bonds in water its properties.

How Hydrogen Bond is formed in Water?

Ø  Water is a polar solvent.

Ø  The polarity of a molecule due to uneven of distribution charges in them.

Ø  Uneven charge distribution causes a dipole formation.

Ø  One part (pole) of water molecule is slightly positive.

Ø  The other part (pole) of water molecule is slightly negative.

Ø  This type of difference in the distribution of positive and negative charges in a molecule is due to the huge difference in the electronegativity of the atoms in them.

Ø  Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract bonded pair of electrons towards its nucleus.

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Botany lecture notes

P Protein (Phloem Protein): Structure, Classifications and Functions


forisomes definition

P – Protein (Phloem Protein)
(Structure, Classification and Functions of Phloem Proteins)

What are P Proteins? 

Ø  P Proteins (Phloem Proteins) are a category of proteins found in the sap of the sieve tubes of the phloem of Angiospermic plants.

Ø  P-proteins were also as called ‘slime bodies’ of ‘slime’ in the old literature.

Ø  P proteins are usually found in the phloem of dicot plants.

Ø  They are very rarely reported in monocots.

Ø  P proteins are completely absent in the phloem of Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms.

Ø  P proteins occur in different forms in the different developmental stages of sieve tubes.

Ø  P proteins can exist in the sieve tubes as tubular, globular, fibrillar, granular and crystalline forms.

Ø  P proteins are highly polar molecules and they can form gel like substance in the presence of water.

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mcq biology

MCQ on Water: Physical and Chemical Properties; pH and Buffer Systems Part 3 (Biochemistry MCQ-13)


biochemistry MCQ Water Buffer 

(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for CSIR JRF/NET Life Science Examination, ICMR JRF Exam, DBT BET JRF Exam,, GATE BT and XL Exam, ICAR JRF NE Exam, PG Entrance Exam, JAM Exam, GS Biology Exam and Medical Entrance Exam)

(1). What is the molecular weight of water?

a.       10 g/mol
b.      15 g/mol
c.       18 g/mol
d.      20 g/mol

(2). What is the H+ ion concentration in pure water?

a.       1 X 10-7 m
b.      1 X 107 m
c.       1 X 10-14 m
d.      1 X 1014 m

(3). The equilibrium constant of ionization reaction of pure water is:

a.       1.8 X 10-14 M
b.      1.8 X 10-16 M
c.       1.8 X 10-7 M
d.      1.8 X 10-7 M

(4). The pH of pure water is neutral, the best explanation for this is:

a.       The pH of pure water is 7
b.      In pure water the concentration of H+ and OH are same
c.       Water do not contain free H+ or OH ions
d.      What will never ionize

(5). What is the concentration of OH ions in a solution with an H+ ion concentration of 1.3 X 10-4M?

a.       7.7 X 10-11 M
b.      7.7 X 10-10M
c.       1.4 X 10-11M
d.      1.4 X 10-10 M

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mcq biology

MCQ on Water, Hydrogen Bonds, pH Scale and Buffer Systems Part 2 (Biochemistry MCQ-12)


MCQ on Hydrogen Bond, pH Scale

(Sample/Model/Practice Questions for CSIR JRF/NET Life Science Examination, ICMR JRF Exam, DBT BET JRF Exam,, GATE BT and XL Exam, ICAR JRF NE Exam, PG Entrance Exam, JAM Exam, GS Biology Exam and Medical Entrance Exam)

(1). Bond length between H and O atoms in water is:

a.       0.00965 nm
b.      0.0965 nm
c.       0.965 nm
d.      9.650 nm

(2). The van der Waals radius of Oxygen atom in water molecule is

a.       1.2 Å
b.      1.4 Å
c.       1.6 Å
d.      1.8 Å

(3). At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, a single water molecule can be hydrogen bonded with __________ water molecules.

a.       3.4
b.      3.0
c.       2.4
d.      1.4

(4). Non polar molecules are insoluble in water. This is because:

a.       Non polar molecules are uncharged
b.      Non polar molecules cannot be ionized
c.       Non polar molecules are unable to form water-solute interaction
d.      Hydrogen bond formation is not possible with non-polar molecules

(5). Which of the following is the correct for the formation of a hydrogen bond? (Hydrogen bond is represented as ‘…’)

a.       – O – H – O – H – X
b.      – O – H … O – X
c.       – O – H … H – O – X
d.      – O – H … C – O – X

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