MAHATMA GANDHI UNIVERSITY, KOTTAYAM, KERALA, INDIA
M.Sc. BOTANY DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRIL 2010
Faculty of Sciences, Branch VI – Botany
Paper X – Optional A (2) Applied Microbiology
PAPER – I – INDUSTRIAL AND FOOD MICROBIOLOGY
Time: Three Hours Maximum: 75 Marks
Section A (Industrial Microbiology)
I. Answer any one of the following: (1 X 8 = 8 Marks)
1. Give an account of dairy products obtained by fermentation process.
2. Write an essay on the principles and techniques of bacterial culture.
II. Answer any two of the following: (2 X 5 = 10 Marks)
3. Explain the methods used for increasing product yield during fermentation.
4. Describe Homo- and Hetero fermentations.
5. Describe antibiotic fermentation.
III. Answer any three of the following: (3 X 4 = 12 Marks)
6. Explain chemical assays for fermentation products.
7. Give an account of citric acid fermentation.
8. What are the qualities of a food fermenter?
9. Differentiate brewing and fermentation.
10. Explain the method of curing of tobacco.
IV. Answer any five of the following: (5 X 3 = 15 Marks)
11. What is food yeast?
12. What are steroids? Give one example
13. What is the use of gluconic acid?
14. What is a starter culture?
15. Name the organism introduced in the production of vinegar
16. What is ale?
17. What is Vinegar? What are its industrial uses?
18. Name to solvents produced by microbial fermentation.
V. Answer any five of the following, two or three sentences each: (5 X 1 = 5 Marks)
21. Koch’s postulate
Section B (Food Microbiology)
VI. Answer any one of the following: (1 X 8 = 8 Marks)
27. Mention the extrinsic factors that affect spoilage of foods.
28. Give an account of the diseases caused by spoiled foods.
VII. Answer any one of the following: (1 X 5 = 5 Marks)
29. Write notes on chemicals used in food preservation.
30. Write notes on food intoxication
VIII. Answer any two of the following: (2 X 3 = 6 Marks)
31. How spoilage of milks can be prevented?
32. What are the cultural methods used for microbiological examination of food?
33. Describe Microbial flora of beverages.
IX. Answer any three of the following: (3 X 2 = 6 Marks)
34. Condensed milk
35. What is putrefaction?
36. What is Phosphatase test?
37. What is Pasteurization of milk?
38. What is Shigelosis?