MAHATMA GANDHI UNIVERSITY, KOTTAYAM, KERALA, INDIA
M.Sc. BOTANY DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2005
Faculty of Sciences, Branch VI – Botany
PAPER – IV – PLANT DIVERSITY IV : ANGIOSPERM TAXONOMY AND EMBRYOLOGY
Time: Three Hours Maximum: 75 Marks
Section A (Angiosperm Taxonomy)
I. Answer any eleven of the following: (11 X 1 = 11 Marks)
1. What is Kew rule?
2. Why certain names are conserved against priorities?
3. What is a Tautonym?
4. What is Nomia nuda?
5. What is sibling species?
6. What is an artificial system of classification?
7. What are Adansonian principles?
8. What is a typological species concept?
9. Differentiate character from character state.
10. What are the reasons for the rejection of names?
11. Name a Triassic Angiosperm Fossil.
12. What is the monumental work of Van Rheed?
II. Answer any six of the following: (6 X 2 = 12 Marks)
13. What is character weighing?
14. Distinguish between continuous and discontinuous variation.
15. What types of taxonomic indexes are used in systematic studies?
16. What is a biological species?
17. Differentiate monophyly from polyphyly.
18. What is an indented key?
19. What is a valid publication?
20. What would you do if you find that the holotype of a species is lost?
III. Answer any six of the following: (6 X 4 = 24 Marks)
21. Discuss analytic and synthetic character.
22. What is Greeggs paradox? Give an example
23. Discuss the importance of palynological character in solving taxonomic problems.
24. Explain the methods that are used to prevent fungal and insect attacks in a herbarium.
25. What are the major guidelines for good description?
26. Write an account on Botanical Gardens and their importance in taxonomic problems.
27. Comment on the importance of biochemical studies in solving taxonomic problems.
28. Describe the aims and scope of biosystematics in Modern Taxonomy.
IV. Answer any two of the following: (2 X 7 = 14 Marks)
29. Write an account on the application of cladistics in plant taxonomy.
30. Give an account on Takhtajan’s System of classification. In what respect it is distinct from that of Cronguist?
31. Write an account on the theories on the evolution of carpels
Section B (Embryology)
V. Answer any three of the following: (3 X 2 = 6 Marks)
32. Distinguish between amoeboid and secretory type tapetum.
33. Write an account on intra-ovarian pollination.
34. Write an account on the nutrition of embryo sac.
35. What is meant by a pseudo-embryo sac? Give an example.
VI. Answer any two of the following: (2 X 4 = 8 Marks)
36. Explain various methods adopted to test pollen viability.
37. Explain the post-pollination changes occur in an embryo sac.
38. Give a brief account on the applied aspects of embryology