MAHATMA GANDHI UNIVERSITY, KOTTAYAM, KERALA, INDIA
M.Sc. BOTANY DEGREE EXAMINATION, JUNE 2010
Faculty of Sciences, Branch VI – Botany
PAPER – IV – PLANT DIVERSITY IV : ANGIOSPERM TAXONOMY AND EMBRYOLOGY
Time: Three Hours Maximum: 75 Marks
Section A (Angiosperm Taxonomy)
I. Answer any eleven of the following: (11 X 1 = 11 Marks)
1. What is typological species concept?
2. What is synoptic key?
3. Mention the different kinds of taxonomic literature.
4. Define Nomina nuda.
5. Define autonym
6. What are tautonyms?
7. What is a sibling species?
8. Define homonym.
9. What is phenon?
10. What is a holotype?
11. Give one example for a family with epigynous ovary.
12. Define cladistics.
II. Answer any six of the following: (6 X 2 = 12 Marks)
13. Explain with examples Apocarpous and syncarpous conditions.
14. Elucidate the significance of reproductive isolation.
15. Name ways, other than a taxonomic key, to identify a plant specimen.
16. What are correlated characters? Give one example.
17. What is the role of embryological characters in taxonomy?
18. What is double citation of authors? Cite an example.
19. Distinguish Articles from Recommendation of the ICBN.
III. Answer any six of the following: (6 X 4 = 24 Marks)
20. Explain the importance of Hortus Malabaricus to Indian Botany.
21. Describe the example of Caytonia as a putative angiosperm progenitor, citing evidence for and against this idea.
22. Explain polynomial system of nomenclature with an example.
23. Explain Hennigian concept.
24. Explain briefly the role of Herbarium in taxonomic studies.
25. Mention the different kinds of taxonomic literature.
26. Comment on the concept of family.
27. Briefly explain the significance of DNA homology in taxonomic studies.
IV. Answer any two of the following: (2 X 7 = 14 Marks)
28. Briefly explain the current views on the origin of Angiosperms.
29. Explain the contributions of Botanical Survey of India in floristic studies in the country.
30. Critically evaluate Engler’s system of classification based on its conceptual background.
Section B (Embryology)
V. Answer any three of the following: (3 X 2 = 6 Marks)
31. What is an obturator? Give an example.
32. Mention the different kinds of embryo sacs in Angiosperms.
33. Give an account on Apomixis.
34. What is endosperm and what is its function?
VI. Answer any two of the following: (2 X 4 = 8 Marks)
35. Give an account on Embryo culture.
36. Explain the structure and development of Dicot embryo.
37. Explain Sagitaria type of embryogenesis.