MAHATMA GANDHI UNIVERSITY, KOTTAYAM, KERALA, INDIA
M.Sc. BOTANY DEGREE EXAMINATION, JULY 2004
Faculty of Sciences, Branch VI – Botany
PAPER – IV – PLANT DIVERSITY IV: ANGIOSPERM TAXONOMY AND EMBRYOLOGY
Time: Three Hours Maximum: 75 Marks
Section A (Angiosperm Taxonomy)
I. Answer any eleven of the following: (11 X 1 = 11 Marks)
1. What is an autonym?
2. What is meant by Rule of priority?
3. What is Effective publication?
4. What is meant by Compilospecies?
5. What is a Metaspecies?
6. Define Cladistics.
7. What is meant by Character Weighing?
8. What is Taxonomic monograph?
9. What is Essentialism?
10. Differentiate Monophyly and Polyphyly.
11. What are Correlated characters?
12. Name any two taxonomic journals with their place of publication.
II. Answer any six of the following: (6 X 2 = 12 Marks)
13. What is a species complex?
14. What types of taxonomic indexes are used in systematic studies?
15. Distinguish between Parallelism and Convergence.
16. What is the basis for the determination of “Primitive or Advance”?
17. Distinguish between Floristics and Monographic studies.
18. What would you do if you find that the holotype of a species is lost?
19. Distinguish Homonym from Basionym.
20. Compare the accessory floral organs of Polygala and Crotalaria
III. Answer any six of the following: (6 X 4 = 24 Marks)
21. What are the criteria for the establishment of taxonomic ranks?
22. How are interspecific and inter-generic hybrids named?
23. Describe the functions of a Herbarium.
24. What is “Greggs paradox”? Give an example.
25. Write a short note on the importance of pollen exine ornamentation in Angiosperm Taxonomy.
26. What are the important guidelines for constructing dichotomous keys?
27. What is homology? What problems arise in the determination of homology?
28. What are the major problems in the determination of phylogeny?
IV. Answer any two of the following: (2 X 7 = 14 Marks)
29. Write an account on the aims and principles of Numerical taxonomy.
30. Write an account on the theories on evolution of carpels.
31. Give an outline of classification proposed by Engler and Prantdl. Briefly discuss Engler’s concept of Primitive flower.
Section B (Embryology)
V. Answer any three of the following: (3 X 2 = 6 Marks)
32. Write notes on Nemec phenomenon.
33. Compare Crassinucellate and Tenuinucellate ovule.
34. Give an account on Hypostase.
35. What are cybrids?
VI. Answer any two of the following: (2 X 4 = 8 Marks)
36. Draw a neat labeled diagram of a mature embryo sac and comment on its nutrition.
37. Write notes on different types of polyembryony.
38. Write an account on pollen-pistil interaction. What is its significance?